|The First Revelation to Musa|
Allah, the Exalted, says,
(And when he came to it,) This is referring to the fire when he approached it.
(He was called by name: "O Musa!'') In another Ayah it says,
﴿نُودِىَ مِن شَاطِىءِ الْوَادِى الأَيْمَنِ فِى الْبُقْعَةِ الْمُبَارَكَةِ مِنَ الشَّجَرَةِ أَن يمُوسَى إِنِّى أَنَا اللَّهُ﴾
(He was called from the right side of the valley, in the blessed place, from the tree: "O Musa! Verily, I am Allah.'')﴿28:30﴾ However, here Allah says,
﴿إِنِّى أَنَاْ رَبُّكَ﴾
(Verily, I am your Lord!) meaning, `the One Who is talking to you and addressing you,'
(So take off your shoes;) `Ali bin Abi Talib, Abu Dharr, Abu Ayyub and others of the Salaf said, "They (his sandals) were from the skin of a donkey that was not slaughtered.'' It has also been said that he was only commanded to remove his sandals due to respect for the blessed spot. Concerning Allah's statement,
(Tuwa) `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said, "It is the name of the valley.'' Others have said the same. This is merely mentioned as something to give more explanation to the story. It has also been said that it is a figure of speech, which comes from the command to place his feet down. It has also been said that it means `doubly sacred' and that Tuwa is something that has repetitious blessings. However, the first opinion is most correct. It is similar to Allah's statement,
﴿إِذْ نَادَاهُ رَبُّهُ بِالْوَادِ الْمُقَدَّسِ طُوًى ﴾
(When his Lord called him in the sacred valley of Tuwa.) ﴿79:16﴾ Allah's statement,
(And I have chosen you.) is similar to His statement,
﴿إِنْى اصْطَفَيْتُكَ عَلَى النَّاسِ بِرِسَـلَـتِي وَبِكَلَـمِي﴾
(I have chosen you above men by My Messages, and by My speaking (to you).) ﴿7:144﴾ This means over all human beings of that time. It has also been said that Allah said, "O Musa, do you know why I chose to speak to you directly out of all of the people'' Musa said, "No.'' Allah then said, "Because I have not made anyone humble himself as much as you have humbled yourself. '' Concerning Allah's statement,
﴿فَاسْتَمِعْ لِمَا يُوحَى﴾
(So listen to that which will be revealed.) "Now listen to what I say to you and what I reveal to you.''
﴿إِنَّنِى أَنَا اللَّهُ لا إِلَـهَ إِلا أَنَاْ﴾
(Verily, I am Allah! There is no God but Me,) This is the first obligation upon all responsible people of age, that they know that there is no God worthy of worship except Allah alone, Who has no partners. Concerning Allah's statement,
(so worship Me,) This means, "Single Me out alone for worship, and establish My worship without associating anything with Me.''
﴿وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَوةَ لِذِكْرِى﴾
(and perform Salah for My remembrance.) It has been said that this means, "Pray in order to remember Me.'' It has also been said that it means, "And establish the prayer whenever you remember Me.'' There is a supporting evidence for this second statement in a Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad from Anas, who said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«إِذَا رَقَدَ أَحَدُكُمْ عَنِ الصَّلَاةِ أَوْ غَفَلَ عَنْهَا، فَلْيُصَلِّهَا إِذَا ذَكَرَهَا، فَإِنَّ اللهَ تَعَالى قَالَ:
﴿وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَوةَ لِذِكْرِى﴾
(Whenever one of you sleeps past the prayer, or he forgets to pray, then let him pray when he remembers it. For verily, Allah said, (And perform Salah for My remembrance.)) In the Two Sahihs it is reported from Anas that the Messenger of Allah said,
«مَنْ نَامَ عَنْ صَلَاةٍ أَوْ نَسِيَهَا فَكَفَّارَتُهَا أَنْ يُصَلِّيَهَا إِذَا ذَكَرَهَا، لَا كَفَّارَةَةَلهَا إِلَّا ذَلِك»
(Whoever slept past the prayer, or forgot it, then his expiation is that he prays it when he remembers it. There is no expiation for it other than that.) Concerning Allah's statement,
﴿إِنَّ السَّاعَةَ ءَاتِيَةٌ﴾
(Verily, the Hour is coming) This means that it is established and there is no avoiding it. It will be and it is inevitable. Concerning Allah's statement,
(I am almost hiding it) Ad-Dahhak related from Ibn `Abbas that he used to recite it as, "I almost kept it hidden -- from myself.'' Ibn `Abbas then would say, "Because nothing is ever hidden from Allah's Self.'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said,
(I am almost hiding it.) "This means that no one knows its appointed time except Me (Allah).'' Allah also said,
﴿ثَقُلَتْ فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ لاَ تَأْتِيكُمْ إِلاَّ بَغْتَةً﴾
(Heavy is its burden through the heavens and the earth. It shall not come upon you except all of a sudden.) ﴿7:187﴾ This means that its knowledge weighs heavily upon the dwellers of the heavens and the earth. Concerning Allah's statement,
﴿لِتُجْزَى كُلُّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا تَسْعَى﴾
(that every person may be rewarded for that which he strives.) "I will establish it and it is inevitable. I will certainly reward every person who does something, according to what he did.''
﴿فَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْراً يَرَهُ - وَمَن يَعْـمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرّاً يَرَهُ ﴾
(So whosoever does good equal to the weight of an atom shall see it. And whosoever does evil equal to the weight of an atom shall see it.) ﴿99:7-8﴾
﴿إِنَّمَا تُجْزَوْنَ مَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ﴾
(You are only being requited for what you used to do.) ﴿52:16﴾ Allah said,
﴿فَلاَ يَصُدَّنَّكَ عَنْهَا مَن لاَّ يُؤْمِنُ بِهَا﴾
(Therefore, let not divert you the one who believes not therein,) The address here is directed towards all individuals who are responsible (and capable of taking heed to this message). This means, "Do not follow the way of the person who does not believe in the Hour (Day of Judgement) and he only pursues his desires in this worldly life. He disobeys his Lord and only follows his desires. Whoever behaves like these people, then verily he has failed and lost.
(lest you perish.) This means that you will be destroyed and ruined.
﴿وَمَا يُغْنِى عَنْهُ مَالُهُ إِذَا تَرَدَّى ﴾
(And what will his wealth avail him when he goes down (in destruction)) ﴿92:11﴾
﴿قَالَ أَلْقِهَا يمُوسَى - فَأَلْقَـهَا فَإِذَا هِىَ حَيَّةٌ تَسْعَى - قَالَ خُذْهَا وَلاَ تَخَفْ سَنُعِيدُهَا سِيَرتَهَا الاٍّولَى ﴾
(17. "And what is that in your right hand, O Musa'') (18. He said: "This is my stick, whereon I lean, and wherewith I beat down branches for my sheep, and wherein I find other uses.'') (19. (Allah) said: "Cast it down, O Musa!'') (20. He cast it down, and behold! It was a snake, moving quickly. ) (21. Allah said: "Grasp it and fear not; We shall return it to its former state.'')
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