Allah then said,
﴿إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَلَّوْاْ مِنكُمْ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ إِنَّمَا اسْتَزَلَّهُمُ الشَّيْطَـنُ بِبَعْضِ مَا كَسَبُواْ﴾
(Those of you who turned back on the day the two hosts met, Shaytan only caused them to err because of some of what they had earned) ﴿3:155﴾,
because of some of their previous errors. Indeed, some of the Salaf said, "The reward of the good deed includes being directed to another good deed that follows it, while the retribution of sin includes committing another sin that follows it.'' Allah then said,
﴿وَلَقَدْ عَفَا اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ﴾
(but Allah, indeed, has forgiven them), their giving flight,
﴿أَنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ﴾
(surely, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Forbearing)
He forgives sins, pardons and exonerates His creatures. Imam Ahmad recorded that Shaqiq said, " `Abdur-Rahman bin `Awf met Al-Walid bin `Uqbah, who said to him, `Why did you desert `Uthman, the Leader of the Faithful' `Abdur-Rahman said, `Tell him that I did not run away during Uhud, remain behind during Badr, nor abandon the Sunnah of `Umar.' Al-Walid told `Uthman what `Abdur-Rahman said. `Uthman replied, `As for his statement, `I did not run away during Uhud,' how can he blame me for an error that Allah has already forgiven. Allah said,
﴿إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَلَّوْاْ مِنكُمْ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ إِنَّمَا اسْتَزَلَّهُمُ الشَّيْطَـنُ بِبَعْضِ مَا كَسَبُواْ وَلَقَدْ عَفَا اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ﴾
(Those of you who turned back on the day the two hosts met, Shaytan only caused them to err because of some of what they had earned. But Allah, indeed, has forgiven them).
As for his statement that I remained behind from participating in Badr, I was nursing Ruqayyah, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah , until she passed away. The Messenger of Allah gave me a share in the booty of Badr, and whoever gets a share in the booty from the Messenger of Allah will have participated in battle. As for his statement that I abandoned the Sunnah of `Umar, neither I nor he are able to endure it. Go and convey this answer to him.'''
﴿يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَكُونُواْ كَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَقَالُواْ لإِخْوَنِهِمْ إِذَا ضَرَبُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ أَوْ كَانُواْ غُزًّى لَّوْ كَانُواْ عِنْدَنَا مَا مَاتُواْ وَمَا قُتِلُواْ لِيَجْعَلَ اللَّهُ ذَلِكَ حَسْرَةً فِى قُلُوبِهِمْ وَاللَّهُ يُحْيىِ وَيُمِيتُ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ - وَلَئِنْ قُتِلْتُمْ فِى سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَوْ مُتُّمْ لَمَغْفِرَةٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرَحْمَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِّمَّا يَجْمَعُونَ - وَلَئِنْ مُّتُّمْ أَوْ قُتِلْتُمْ لإِلَى الله تُحْشَرُونَ ﴾
(156. O you who believe! Be not like those who disbelieve and who say to their brethren when they travel through the earth or go out to fight: "If they had stayed with us, they would not have died or been killed,'' so that Allah may make it a cause of regret in their hearts. It is Allah that gives life and causes death. And Allah is All-Seer of what you do.) (157. And if you are killed or die in the way of Allah, forgiveness and mercy from Allah are far better than all that they amass.) (158. And whether you die or are killed, verily, unto Allah you shall be gathered.)