|The Command to Worship Allah Alone and to be Dutiful to One's Parents|
Allah commands us to worship Him alone, with no partner or associate. The word Qada ﴿normally having the meaning of decree﴾ here means "commanded''. Mujahid said that
(And He has Qada) means enjoined. This is also how Ubayy bin Ka`b, Ibn Mas`ud and Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim recited the Ayah as:
«وَوَصَّى رَبُّكَ أَلَّا تَعْبُدُوا إِلَّا إِيَّاه»
"And your Lord has Wassa ﴿enjoined﴾ that you worship none but Him.'' The idea of worshipping Allah is connected to the idea of honoring one's parents. Allah says:
(And that you be dutiful to your parents.) Here He commands good treatment of parents, as He says elsewhere:
﴿أَنِ اشْكُرْ لِى وَلِوَلِدَيْكَ إِلَىَّ الْمَصِيرُ﴾
(give thanks to Me and to your parents. Unto Me is the final destination) ﴿31:14﴾
﴿إِمَّا يَبْلُغَنَّ عِندَكَ الْكِبَرَ أَحَدُهُمَا أَوْ كِلاَهُمَا فَلاَ تَقُل لَّهُمَآ أُفٍّ﴾
(If one of them or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of disrespect,) means, do not let them hear anything offensive from you, not even say "Uff!'' which is the mildest word of disrespect,
(and do not reprimand them) means, do not do anything horrible to them.
(and do not reprimand them) `Ata' bin Rabah said that it meant, "Do not raise your hand against them.'' When Allah forbids speaking and behaving in an obnoxious manner, He commands speaking and behaving in a good manner, so He says:
﴿وَقُل لَّهُمَا قَوْلاً كَرِيمًا﴾
(but address them in terms of honor.) meaning gently, kindly, politely, and with respect and appreciation.
﴿وَاخْفِضْ لَهُمَا جَنَاحَ الذُّلِّ مِنَ الرَّحْمَةِ﴾
(And lower unto them the wing of submission and humility through mercy,) means, be humble towards them in your actions.
﴿وَقُل رَّبِّ ارْحَمْهُمَا كَمَا رَبَّيَانِى صَغِيرًا﴾
(and say: "My Lord! Bestow on them Your Mercy as they did bring me up when I was young.'') means, say this when they grow old and when they die. Ibn `Abbas said: "But then Allah revealed:
﴿مَا كَانَ لِلنَّبِىِّ وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ أَن يَسْتَغْفِرُواْ لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ﴾
(It is not (proper) for the Prophet and those who believe to ask Allah's forgiveness for the idolators. ..)'' ﴿9:13﴾ There are many Hadiths which speak about honoring one's parents, such as the Hadith narrated through a number of chains of narration from Anas and others, which states that the Prophet climbed up on the Minbar, and then said, ((Amin, Amin, Amin.)) It was said, "O Messenger of Allah, why did you say Amin'' He said:
«أَتَانِي جِبْرِيلُ فَقَالَ: يَا مُحَمَّدُ رَغِمَ أَنْفُ رَجُلٍ ذُكِرْتَ عِنْدَهُ فَلَمْمُيصَلِّ عَلَيْكَ، قُلْ: آمِينَ، فَقُلْتُ: آمِينَ، ثُمَّ قَالَ: رَغِمَ أَنْفُ رَجُلٍ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ ثُمَّ خَرَجَ فَلَمْ يُغْفَرْ لَهُ، قُلْ: آمِينَ، فَقُلْتُ: آمِينَ، ثُمَّ قَالَ: رَغِمَ أَنْفُ رَجُلٍ أَدْرَكَ وَالِدَيْهِ أَوْ أَحَدَهُمَا فَلَمْ يُدْخِلَاهُ الْجَنَّةَ، قُلْ: آمِينَ، فَقُلْتُ: آمِين»
(Jibril came to me and said, "O Muhammad, he is doomed who hears you mentioned and does not say Salla upon you.'' He said, "Say Amin,'' so I said Amin. Then he said, "He is doomed who sees the month of Ramadan come and go, and he has not been forgiven.'' He said, "Say Amin,'' so I said Amin. Then he said, "He is doomed who grows up and both his parents or one of them are still alive, and they do not cause him to enter Paradise.'' He said, "Say Amin,'' so I said Amin.)
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