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The Story of Adam and Iblis Print E-mail

Allah mentions here the enmity of Iblis, may the curse of Allah be upon him and his progeny. This is an ancient hatred, dating from the time that Allah created Adam, when He commanded the angels to prostrate to Adam, and all of them prostrated except Iblis, who was too arrogant and he haughtily refused to prostrate to him. He said in a tone indicating contempt:

﴿قَالَ أَءَسْجُدُ لِمَنْ خَلَقْتَ طِينًا﴾

(He said: "Shall I prostrate myself to one whom You created from clay'') According to another Ayah, he said:

﴿أَنَاْ خَيْرٌ مِّنْهُ خَلَقْتَنِي مِن نَّارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِن طِينٍ﴾

(I am better than he. You created me from fire, and You created him from clay.) ﴿7:12﴾ He also said, speaking to the Lord with disbelief and insolence, but the Lord bore it patiently:

﴿قَالَ أَرَءَيْتَكَ هَـذَا الَّذِى كَرَّمْتَ عَلَىَّ﴾

(He said: "See this one whom You have honored above me...'') `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "He is saying, `I am going to dominate his offspring, all but a few.''' Mujahid said (it means), "I am going to surround them.'' Ibn Zayd said (it means), "I am going to lead them astray.'' All of them are close in meaning, and the meaning of the Ayah is, "Do You see this one whom You have honored and made greater than me If You give me time, I will lead his descendants astray, all but a few of them.''

﴿قَالَ اذْهَبْ فَمَن تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ فَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ جَزَآؤُكُمْ جَزَاءً مَّوفُورًا - وَاسْتَفْزِزْ مَنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ مِنْهُمْ بِصَوْتِكَ وَأَجْلِبْ عَلَيْهِم بِخَيْلِكَ وَرَجِلِكَ وَشَارِكْهُمْ فِى الاٌّمْوَلِ وَالاٌّوْلَـدِ وَعِدْهُمْ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ الشَّيْطَـنُ إِلاَّ غُرُورًا - إِنَّ عِبَادِى لَيْسَ لَكَ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَـنٌ وَكَفَى بِرَبِّكَ وَكِيلاً ﴾

(63. (Allah) said: "Go, and whosoever of them follows you, surely, Hell will be the recompense of you (all) an ample recompense.) (64. "And fool them gradually, those whom you can among them with your voice, Ajlib upon them with your cavalry and your infantry, share with them wealth and children, and make promises to them.'' But Shaytan promises them nothing but deceit.) (65. "Verily, My servants, you have no authority over them. And All-Sufficient is your Lord as a Guardian.'') When Iblis asked for respite, Allah said to him:

﴿اذْهَبْ﴾

`(Go,) I will give you respite.' According to another Ayah (Allah) said:

﴿قَالَ فَإِنَّكَ مِنَ الْمُنظَرِينَ - إِلَى يَوْمِ الْوَقْتِ الْمَعْلُومِ ﴾

(Verily, you are of those allowed respite till the Day of the time appointed.) (38:80-81). Then Allah warned him and those who follow him among the progeny of Adam about Hell:

﴿قَالَ اذْهَبْ فَمَن تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ فَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ جَزَآؤُكُمْ﴾

((Allah) said: "Go, and whosoever of them follows you, surely, Hell will be the recompense of you (all)) meaning, for your deeds.

﴿جَزَاءً مَّوفُورًا﴾

(an ample recompense.) Mujahid said, "Sufficient recompense.'' Qatadah said, "It will be abundant for you and will not be decreased for you.''

﴿وَاسْتَفْزِزْ مَنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ مِنْهُمْ بِصَوْتِكَ﴾

(And fool them gradually those whom you can among them with your voice,) It was said that this refers to singing. Mujahid said, "With idle entertainment and singing,'' meaning, influence them with that.

﴿وَاسْتَفْزِزْ مَنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ مِنْهُمْ بِصَوْتِكَ﴾

(And fool them gradually those whom you can among them with your voice,) Ibn `Abbas said, "Every caller who calls people to disobey Allah.'' This was the view of Qatadah, and was also the opinion favored by Ibn Jarir.

﴿وَأَجْلِبْ عَلَيْهِم بِخَيْلِكَ وَرَجِلِكَ﴾

(Ajib upon them with your cavalry and your infantry.) Send your troops and cavalry and infantry against them. The meaning is, send whatever forces you have at your disposal against them. This is a command (related to the divine decree), as Allah says elsewhere:

﴿أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّآ أَرْسَلْنَا الشَّيَـطِينَ عَلَى الْكَـفِرِينَ تَؤُزُّهُمْ أَزّاً ﴾

(See you not that We have sent the Shayatin against the disbelievers to push them to do evil. ) (19:83), meaning, to provoke them and drive them towards evil.

﴿وَأَجْلِبْ عَلَيْهِم بِخَيْلِكَ وَرَجِلِكَ﴾

(Ajlib upon them with your cavalry and your infantry,) Ibn `Abbas and Mujahid said, "Everyone who rides or walks to go and commit sin and disobey Allah.'' Qatadah said, "He has infantry and cavalry among the Jinn and among humans. They are the ones who obey him.'' The Arabs use the verb Ajlaba when describing somebody shouting at another person. Hence it is forbidden in races to shout at one another and push one another. From this root is also derived the word Jalabah, which means raising voices.

﴿وَشَارِكْهُمْ فِى الاٌّمْوَلِ وَالاٌّوْلَـدِ﴾

(and share with them wealth and children,) Ibn `Abbas and Mujahid said, "This means what he commands them to do of spending money in disobedience to Allah, may He be exalted.''

﴿وَالاٌّوْلْـدِ﴾

(and children,) Ibn' Abbas, as reported by Al-`Awfi, Mujahid and Ad-Dahhak said, "This means the children of Zina (i.e., illegitimate children).'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "This means the children whom they used to kill out of folly, without knowledge.'' Qatadah reported that Al-Hasan Al-Basri said: "Allah caused Shaytan to take a share of wealth and children by making them Magians, Jews and Christians, and making them follow any religion other than Islam, and by making them give a part of their wealth to the Shaytan.'' Qatadah said the same.

﴿وَشَارِكْهُمْ فِى الاٌّمْوَلِ وَالاٌّوْلَـدِ﴾

(and share with them wealth and children.) The fact that only wealth and children are mentioned in this Ayah, does not mean that it is limited only to those things. Everything in which a person disobeys Allah or obeys the Shaytan means that he is sharing with him. It was reported in Sahih Muslim from `Iyad bin Himar that the Messenger of Allah said:

«يَقُولُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِنِّي خَلَقْتُ عِبَادِي حُنَفَاءَ فَجَاءَتْهُمُ الشَّيَاطِينُ فَاجْتَالَتْهُمْ عَنْ دِينِهِمْ وَحَرَّمَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ مَا أَحْلَلْتُ لَهُم»

(Allah the Mighty and Exalted says, "I have created My servants as Hunafa' ﴿monotheists﴾, then the Shayatin come to them and lead them astray from their religion and (tell that) what I have permitted for them is forbidden to them.'') According to the Two Sahihs, the Messenger of Allah said:

«لَوْ أَنَّ أَحَدَهُمْ إِذَا أَرَادَ أَنْ يَأْتِيَ أَهْلَهُ قَالَ: بِسْمِ اللهِ اللَّهُمَّ جَنِّبْنَا الشَّيْطَانَ وَجَنِّبِ الشَّيْطَانَ مَا رَزَقْتَنَا فَإِنَّهُ إِنْ يُقَدَّرْ بَيْنَهُمَا وَلَدٌ فِي ذَلِكَ لَمْ يَضُرَّهُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَبَدًا»

(When one of you wants to have intercourse with his wife, let him say, `In the Name of Allah. O Allah, keep us away from Shaytan and keep Shaytan away from what you bestow on us (children).' Then if a child is decreed for them from that, the Shaytan will never harm him.)

﴿وَعِدْهُمْ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ الشَّيْطَـنُ إِلاَّ غُرُورًا﴾

("...and make promises to them.'' But Shaytan promises them nothing but deceit.) As Allah tells us, Iblis will say, on the Day when the matter is decided:

﴿إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَعَدَكُمْ وَعْدَ الْحَقِّ وَوَعَدتُّكُمْ فَأَخْلَفْتُكُمْ﴾

(Verily, Allah promised you a promise of truth. And I too promised you, but I betrayed you.) ﴿14:22﴾

﴿إِنَّ عِبَادِى لَيْسَ لَكَ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَـنٌ﴾

(Verily, My servants, you have no authority over them.) Here Allah tells us that He supports His believing servants, and guards and protects them against the accursed Shaytan. Allah says:

﴿وَكَفَى بِرَبِّكَ وَكِيلاً﴾

(And All-Sufficient is your Lord as a Guardian.) meaning, as a Protector, Supporter and Helper.

﴿رَّبُّكُمُ الَّذِى يُزْجِى لَكُمُ الْفُلْكَ فِى الْبَحْرِ لِتَبْتَغُواْ مِن فَضْلِهِ إِنَّهُ كَانَ بِكُمْ رَحِيمًا ﴾

(66. Your Lord is He Who drives the ship for you through the sea, in order that you may seek of His bounty. Truly, He is ever Most Merciful towards you.)

 
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