|In everything there is a Sign of Him, showing that He is One|
Sufyan Ath-Thawri narrated from his father from `Ikrimah that Ibn `Abbas was asked; "Did the night come first or the day'' He said, "Do you think that when the heavens and the earth were joined together, there was anything between them except darkness Thus you may know that the night came before the day. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Umar said that a man came to him and questioned him about when the heavens and earth were joined together then they were parted. He said, "Go to that old man (Shaykh) and ask him, then come and tell me what he says to you.'' So he went to Ibn `Abbas and asked him. Ibn `Abbas said: "Yes, the heavens were joined together and it did not rain, and the earth was joined together and nothing grew. When living beings were created to populate the earth, rain came forth from the heavens and vegetation came forth from the earth.'' The man went back to Ibn `Umar and told him what had been said. Ibn `Umar said, "Now I know that Ibn `Abbas has been given knowledge of the Qur'an. He has spoken the truth, and this is how it was.'' Ibn `Umar said: "I did not like the daring attitude of Ibn `Abbas in his Tafsir of the Qur'an, but now I know that he has been given knowledge of the Qur'an.'' Sa`id bin Jubayr said: "The heavens and the earth were attached to one another, then when the heavens were raised up, the earth became separate from them, and this is their parting which was mentioned by Allah in His Book.'' Al-Hasan and Qatadah said, "They were joined together, then they were separated by this air.''
﴿وَجَعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمَآءِ كُلَّ شَىْءٍ حَىٍّ﴾
(And We have made from water every living thing. ) meaning, the origin of every living thing is in water. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, "I said: O Messenger of Allah, when I see you I feel happy and content, tell me about everything.'' He said,
«كُلُّ شَيْءٍ خُلِقَ مِنْ مَاء»
(Everything was created from water.) "I said, tell me about something which, if I do it, I will enter Paradise.'' He said:
«أَفْشِ السَّلَامَ، وَأَطْعِمِ الطَّعَامَ، وَصِلِ الْأَرْحَامَ، وَقُمْ بِاللَّيْلِ وَالنَّاسُ نِيَامٌ، ثُمَّ ادْخُلِ الْجَنَّةَ بِسَلَام»
(Spread (the greeting of) Salam, feed others, uphold the ties of kinship, and stand in prayer at night when people are sleeping. Then you will enter Paradise in peace.) This chain of narration fulfills the conditions of the Two Sahihs, apart from Abu Maymunah, who is one of the men of the Sunans, his first name was Salim; and At-Tirmidhi classed him as Sahih.
﴿وَجَعَلْنَا فِى الاٌّرْضِ رَوَاسِىَ﴾
(And We have placed on the earth firm mountains,) means, mountains which stabilize the earth and keep it steady and lend it weight, lest it should shake with the people, i.e., move and tremble so that they would not be able to stand firm on it -- because it is covered with water, apart from one-quarter of its surface. So the land is exposed to the air and sun, so that its people may see the sky with its dazzling signs and evidence. So Allah says,
﴿أَن تَمِيدَ بِهِمْ﴾
(lest it should shake with them, ) meaning, so that it will not shake with them.
﴿وَجَعَلْنَا فِيهَا فِجَاجاً سُبُلاً﴾
(and We placed therein broad highways for them to pass through,) means, mountain passes through which they may travel from region to region, country to country. As we can see, the mountains form barriers between one land and another, so Allah created gaps -- passes -- in the mountains so that people may travel from here to there. So He says:
(that they may be guided.)
﴿وَجَعَلْنَا السَّمَآءَ سَقْفاً مَّحْفُوظاً﴾
(And We have made the heaven a roof, safe and well-guarded.) means, covering the earth like a dome above it. This is like the Ayah,
﴿وَالسَّمَآءَ بَنَيْنَـهَا بِأَيْدٍ وَإِنَّا لَمُوسِعُونَ ﴾
(With Hands We constructed the heaven. Verily, We are able to extend the vastness of space thereof.) ﴿51:47﴾
﴿وَالسَّمَآءِ وَمَا بَنَـهَا ﴾
(By the heaven and Him Who built it.) ﴿91:5﴾
﴿أَفَلَمْ يَنظُرُواْ إِلَى السَّمَآءِ فَوْقَهُمْ كَيْفَ بَنَيْنَـهَا وَزَيَّنَّـهَا وَمَا لَهَا مِن فُرُوجٍ ﴾
(Have they not looked at the heaven above them, how We have made it and adorned it, and there are no rifts in it) ﴿50:6﴾. The building and making described here refers to the raising of the dome, as when the Messenger of Allah said,
«بُنِيَ الْإِسْلَامُ عَلَى خَمْس»
(Islam is built on five.) i.e., five pillars, which can only refer to a tent as familiar among the Arabs.
(safe and well-guarded.) means, high and protected from anything reaching it. Mujahid said, "Raised up.''
﴿وَهُمْ عَنْ ءَايَـتِهَا مُعْرِضُونَ﴾
(Yet they turn away from its signs.) This is like the Ayah:
﴿وَكَأَيِّن مِّن ءَايَةٍ فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ يَمُرُّونَ عَلَيْهَا وَهُمْ عَنْهَا مُعْرِضُونَ ﴾
(And how many a sign in the heavens and the earth they pass by, while they are averse therefrom) ﴿12:105﴾. They do not think about how Allah has created it, so vast and high, and adorned it with heavenly bodies both stationary and moving by night and day, such as the sun which completes its circuit in one day and night, until it completes its allotted time, which no one knows except Allah, Who created it and subjugated it and directed its course. Then Allah says, drawing attention to some of His signs,
﴿وَهُوَ الَّذِى خَلَقَ الَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَـرَ﴾
(And He it is Who has created the night and the day,) meaning, the one with its darkness and stillness, and the other with its light and human interaction; sometimes the one is longer while the other is shorter, then they switch.
(and the sun and the moon,) the sun with its own light and its own path and orbit and allotted time, and the moon which shines with a different light and travels on a different path and has its own allotted time.
﴿كُلٌّ فِى فَلَكٍ يَسْبَحُونَ﴾
(each in an orbit floating.) means, revolving. Ibn `Abbas said, "They revolve like a spinning wheel, in a circle.'' This is like the Ayah:
﴿فَالِقُ الإِصْبَاحِ وَجَعَلَ الَّيْلَ سَكَناً وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ حُسْبَاناً ذَلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ ﴾
((He is the) Cleaver of the daybreak. He has appointed the night for resting, and the sun and the moon for reckoning. Such is the measuring of the All-Mighty, the All-Knowing.) ﴿6:96﴾
(34. And We granted not to any human being immortality before you; then if you die, would they live forever) (35. Everyone is going to taste death, and We shall test you with evil and with good by way of trial. And to Us you will be returned.)
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