|The Duties of the Muslims when They attain Power|
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Uthman bin `Affan said, "The Ayah:
﴿الَّذِينَ إِنْ مَّكَّنَّـهُمْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ أَقَامُواْ الصَّلَوةَ وَآتَوُاْ الزَّكَـوةَ وَأَمَرُواْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَنَهَوْاْ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ﴾
(Those who, if We give them power in the land, (they) establish the Salah, enforce the Zakah, and they enjoin the good and forbid the evil.) was revealed concerning us, for we had been expelled from our homes unjustly only because we said: `Our Lord is Allah.' Then we were given power in the land, so we established regular prayer, paid the Zakah, enjoined what is good and forbade what is evil, and with Allah rests the end of (all) matters. This is about my companions and I.'' Abu Al-`Aliyah said, "They were the Companions of Muhammad .'' As-Sabah bin Suwadah Al-Kindi said, "I heard `Umar bin `Abdul-`Aziz give a speech and say:
﴿الَّذِينَ إِنْ مَّكَّنَّـهُمْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ﴾
(Those who, if We give them power in the land....) Then he said, "This is not obligatory only for those who are in authority, it also applies to those who are governed by them. Shall I not tell you what you can expect from your governor, and what duties those who are ruled owe to him Your rights over your governor are that he should check on you with regard to your duties towards Allah and restore the rights that you have over one another, and that he should guide you to the straight path as much as possible. Your duties towards him are that you should obey him without cheating and without resentment, and you should obey him both in secret and openly.'' `Atiyah Al-`Awfi said, "This Ayah is like the Ayah:
﴿وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ ءامَنُواْ مِنْكُمْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِى الاْرْضِ﴾
(Allah has promised those among you who believe and do righteous good deeds, that He will certainly grant them succession to (the present rulers) in the land) ﴿24:55﴾.
﴿وَلِلَّهِ عَـقِبَةُ الاٍّمُورِ﴾
(And with Allah rests the end of (all) matters.) This is like the Ayah:
(And the good end is for those who have Taqwa) ﴿28:83﴾. Zayd bin Aslam said:
﴿وَلِلَّهِ عَـقِبَةُ الاٍّمُورِ﴾
(And with Allah rests the end of (all) matters.) "And with Allah will be the reward for what they did.''
﴿وَإِن يُكَذِّبُوكَ فَقَدْ كَذَّبَتْ قَبْلَهُمْ قَوْمُ نُوحٍ وَعَادٌ وَثَمُودُ - وَقَوْمُ إِبْرَهِيمَ وَقَوْمُ لُوطٍ - وَأَصْحَـبُ مَدْيَنَ وَكُذِّبَ مُوسَى فَأمْلَيْتُ لِلْكَـفِرِينَ ثُمَّ أَخَذْتُهُمْ فَكَيْفَ كَانَ نَكِيرِ - فَكَأَيِّن مِّن قَرْيَةٍ أَهْلَكْنَـهَا وَهِىَ ظَالِمَةٌ فَهِىَ خَاوِيَةٌ عَلَى عُرُوشِهَا وَبِئْرٍ مُّعَطَّلَةٍ وَقَصْرٍ مَّشِيدٍ - أَفَلَمْ يَسِيرُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ فَتَكُونَ لَهُمْ قُلُوبٌ يَعْقِلُونَ بِهَآ أَوْ ءَاذَانٌ يَسْمَعُونَ بِهَا فَإِنَّهَا لاَ تَعْمَى الاٌّبْصَـرُ وَلَـكِن تَعْمَى الْقُلُوبُ الَّتِى فِى الصُّدُورِ ﴾
(42. And if they deny you, so did deny before them the people of Nuh, `Ad and Thamud.) (43. And the people of Ibrahim and the people of Lut,) (44. And the dwellers of Madyan; and denied was Musa. But I granted respite to the disbelievers for a while, then I seized them, and how (terrible) was My punishment!) (45. And many a township did We destroy while they were given to wrongdoing, so that it lie in ruins, and a deserted well and castle Mashid!) (46. Have they not traveled through the land, and have they hearts wherewith to understand and ears wherewith to hear Verily, it is not the eyes that grow blind, but it is the hearts which are in the breasts that grow blind.)
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