|The Treachery of the Hypocrites and the Attitude of the Believers|
Allah tells us about the characteristics of the hypocrites who show one thing while hiding another, and who say with their tongues,
﴿آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَبِالرَّسُولِ وَأَطَعْنَا ثُمَّ يَتَوَلَّى فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُمْ مِّن بَعْدِ ذلِكَ﴾
("We have believed in Allah and in the Messenger, and we obey,'' then a party of them turn away thereafter,) meaning, their actions contradict their deeds, and they say that which they do not do. Allah says:
﴿وَمَآ أُوْلَـئِكَ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ﴾
(such are not believers.)
﴿وَإِذَا دُعُواْ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَهُمْ﴾
(And when they are called to Allah and His Messenger, to judge between them...) means, when they are asked to follow the guidance which Allah has revealed to His Messenger , they turn away and are too arrogantly proud of themselves to follow him. This is like the Ayah:
﴿أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يَزْعُمُونَ أَنَّهُمْ ءَامَنُواْ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ﴾
(Have you not seen those who claim that they believe in that which has been sent down to you, and that which was sent down before you,) until His saying:
﴿رَأَيْتَ الْمُنَـفِقِينَ يَصُدُّونَ عَنكَ صُدُوداً﴾
(you see the hypocrites turn away from you with aversion) ﴿4: 60-61﴾.
﴿وَإِن يَكُنْ لَّهُمُ الْحَقُّ يَأْتُواْ إِلَيْهِ مُذْعِنِينَ ﴾
(But if the truth is on their side, they come to him willingly with submission.) means, if the ruling will be in their favor and not against them, then they will come and will listen and obey, which is what is meant by the phrase
(willingly with submission.) But if the ruling will go against him, he turns away and demands something that goes against the truth, and he prefers to refer for judgement to someone other than the Prophet so that his false claims may prevail. His acceptance in the beginning was not because he believed that it was the truth, but because it happened to be in accordance with his desires. So when the truth went against what he was hoping for, he turned away from it. Allah said:
﴿أَفِى قُلُوبِهِمْ مَّرَضٌ﴾
(Is there a disease in their hearts...) meaning, their situation cannot be anything else, they must necessarily have a disease in their hearts, or else they have some doubts about the religion, or they are afraid that Allah and His Messenger will be unjust in their ruling against them. Whichever it is, it is pure disbelief, and Allah knows which of these characteristics each one of them has. d
﴿بَلْ أُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الظَّـلِمُونَ﴾
(Nay, it is they themselves who are the wrongdoers.) means, they are the evildoers who commit immoral actions, and Allah and His Messenger are innocent of the injustice and unfairness that they imagine; exalted be Allah and His Messenger above such a thing. Then Allah tells us about the attributes of the believers who respond to Allah and His Messenger and who seek no other way apart from the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger . Allah says:
﴿إِنَّمَا كَانَ قَوْلَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذَا دُعُواْ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَهُمْ أَن يَقُولُواْ سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا﴾
(The only saying of the faithful believers, when they are called to Allah and His Messenger, to judge between them, is that they say: "We hear and we obey''.) meaning, to hear to obey. Allah describes them as having attained success, which is achieving what one wants and being saved from what one fears. So Allah says:
﴿وَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ﴾
(And such are the successful.) Concerning the Ayah:
﴿أَن يَقُولُواْ سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا﴾
(they say: "We hear and we obey''.), Qatadah said: "We were told that when `Ubadah bin As-Samit, who had been present at Al-`Aqabah and at Badr, and was one of the leaders of the Ansar, was dying, he said to his nephew Junadah bin Abi Umayyah: `Shall I not tell you what you must do and what is your due' He said, `Yes.' He said: `You have to listen and obey when times are easy and when they are hard, when you feel energetic and when you do not want to, and when you feel selfish. You have to train your tongue to speak the truth. Do not go against those who are in authority, unless they openly command you to commit acts of disobedience to Allah. Whenever you are commanded to do something that goes against the Book of Allah, then follow the Book of Allah.''' Qatadah said: We were told that Abu Ad-Darda' said, "There is no Islam except through obedience to Allah, and no goodness except in Jama`ah. Sincerity is to Allah and His Messenger , and to the Khalifah and all the believers.'' He said: "And we were told that `Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, used to say; `The bonds of Islam are La ilaha illallah, establishing prayer, paying Zakah and obeying those whom Allah has given authority over the affairs of the Muslims.''' This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim. There are very many Hadiths and reports which state that it is obligatory to obey the Book of Allah, the Sunnah of His Messenger, the Rightly-Guided Khalifahs and the Imams when they command us to obey Allah; there are too many of these reports to quote them all here.
﴿وَمَن يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ﴾
(And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger,) in what he is commanded with, and avoid what he is forbidden,
(fears Allah, ) means, for his past sins,
(and has Taqwa of Him,) regarding sins he may commit in the future.
﴿فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْفَآئِزُون﴾
(such are the successful.) means, those who will attain all goodness and be saved from all evil in this world and the Hereafter.
﴿وَأَقْسَمُواْ بِاللَّهِ جَهْدَ أَيْمَـنِهِمْ لَئِنْ أَمَرْتَهُمْ لَيَخْرُجُنَّ قُل لاَّ تُقْسِمُواْ طَاعَةٌ مَّعْرُوفَةٌ إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ - قُلْ أَطِيعُواْ اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْاْ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْهِ مَا حُمِّلَ وَعَلَيْكُمْ مَّا حُمِّلْتُمْ وَإِن تُطِيعُوهُ تَهْتَدُواْ وَمَا عَلَى الرَّسُولِ إِلاَّ الْبَلَـغُ الْمُبِينُ ﴾
(53. They swear by Allah their strongest oaths that if only you would order them, they would leave. Say: "Swear you not; obedience is known. Verily, Allah knows well what you do.'') (54. Say: "Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, but if you turn away, he is only responsible for the duty placed on him and you for that placed on you. If you obey him, you shall be on the right guidance. The Messenger's duty is only to convey (the Message) in a clear way.'') Allah says about the hypocrites who had promised the Messenger and sworn that if he were to command them to go out for battle, they would go:
﴿قُل لاَّ تُقْسِمُواْ﴾
(Say: "Swear you not...'') meaning, do not swear this oath.
(obedience is known.) It was said that the meaning is, your obedience is known, i.e., it is known that your obedience is merely verbal and is not accompanied by action. Every time you swear an oath you lie. This is like the Ayah:
﴿يَحْلِفُونَ لَكُمْ لِتَرْضَوْاْ عَنْهُمْ﴾
(They swear to you that you may be pleased with them...) ﴿9:96﴾ And Allah says:
﴿اتَّخَذْواْ أَيْمَـنَهُمْ جُنَّةً﴾
(They have made their oaths a screen (for their evil actions).) ﴿58:16﴾ It is part of their nature to tell lies, even in the issues they choose, as Allah says:
﴿أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ نَـفَقُواْ يَقُولُونَ لإِخْوَانِهِمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَـبِ لَئِنْ أُخْرِجْتُمْ لَنَخْرُجَنَّ مَعَكُمْ وَلاَ نُطِيعُ فيكُمْ أَحَداً أَبَداً وَإِن قُوتِلْتُمْ لَنَنصُرَنَّكُمْ وَاللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ إِنَّهُمْ لَكَـذِبُونَ - لَئِنْ أُخْرِجُواْ لاَ يَخْرُجُونَ مَعَهُمْ وَلَئِن قُوتِلُواْ لاَ يَنصُرُونَهُمْ وَلَئِن نَّصَرُوهُمْ لَيُوَلُّنَّ الاٌّدْبَـرَ ثُمَّ لاَ يُنصَرُونَ ﴾
(Have you not observed the hypocrites who say to their friends among the people of the Scripture who disbelieve: "If you are expelled, we indeed will go out with you, and we shall never obey any one against you; and if you are attacked, we shall indeed help you.'' But Allah is Witness that they verily are liars. Surely, if they are expelled, never will they go out with them; and if they are attacked, they will never help them. And if they do help them, they will turn their backs, and they will not be victorious.) ﴿59:11-12﴾ Then Allah says:
﴿قُلْ أَطِيعُواْ اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ﴾
(Say: "Obey Allah and obey the Messenger...) meaning, follow the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger .
(but if you turn away,) if you ignore what he has brought to you,
﴿فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْهِ مَا حُمِّلَ﴾
(he is only responsible for the duty placed on him), conveying the Message and fulfilling the trust.
﴿وَعَلَيْكُمْ مَّا حُمِّلْتُمْ﴾
(and you for that placed on you.) accepting that, and venerating it and doing as it commanded.
﴿وَإِن تُطِيعُوهُ تَهْتَدُواْ﴾
(If you obey him, you shall be on the right guidance.) because he calls to the straight path,
﴿صِرَطِ اللَّهِ الَّذِى لَهُ مَا فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَمَا فِى الاٌّرْضِ﴾
(The path of Allah to Whom belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. ..) ﴿42:53﴾
﴿وَمَا عَلَى الرَّسُولِ إِلاَّ الْبَلَـغُ الْمُبِينُ﴾
(The Messenger's duty is only to convey in a clear way.) This is like the Ayat:
﴿فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْكَ الْبَلَـغُ وَعَلَيْنَا الْحِسَابُ﴾
(your duty is only to convey and on Us is the reckoning.) ﴿13:40﴾
﴿فَذَكِّرْ إِنَّمَآ أَنتَ مُذَكِّرٌ - لَّسْتَ عَلَيْهِم بِمُسَيْطِرٍ ﴾
(So remind them -- you are only one who reminds. You are not a dictator over them.) ﴿88:21-22﴾
﴿وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مِنْكُمْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخْلَفَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ وَلَيُمَكِّنَنَّ لَهُمْ دِينَهُمُ الَّذِى ارْتَضَى لَهُمْ وَلَيُبَدِّلَنَّهُمْ مِّن بَعْدِ خَوْفِهِمْ أَمْناً يَعْبُدُونَنِى لاَ يُشْرِكُونَ بِى شَيْئاً وَمَن كَفَرَ بَعْدَ ذلِكَ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْفَـسِقُونَ ﴾
(55. Allah has promised those among you who believe and do righteous good deeds, that He will certainly grant them succession in the land, as He granted it to those before them, and that He will grant them the authority to practise their religion which He has chosen for them. And He will surely give them in exchange a safe security after their fear if they worship Me and do not associate anything with Me. But whoever disbelieved after this, they are the rebellious.)
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