|Evidence of the existence of the Creator and the extent of His Power|
Here Allah begins explaining the evidence for His existence and His perfect power to create various things and pairs of opposites. Allah says:
﴿أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى رَبِّكَ كَيْفَ مَدَّ الظِّلَّ﴾
(Have you not seen how your Lord spread the shadow.) Ibn `Abbas, Ibn `Umar, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Abu Malik, Masruq, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, An-Nakha`i, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi and others said, "This refers to the period from the beginning of the dawn until the sun rises.''
﴿وَلَوْ شَآءَ لَجَعَلَهُ سَاكِناً﴾
(If He willed, He could have made it still) meaning, immobile, never changing. This is like the Ayat:
﴿قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِن جَعَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكُمُ الَّيْلَ سَرْمَداً﴾
(Say : "Tell me! If Allah made the night continuous for you...'') (28:71)
﴿ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَا الشَّمْسَ عَلَيْهِ دَلِيلاً﴾
(but We have made the sun its guide.) means, were it not for the sun rising, it would not be there, for a thing can only be known in contrast to its opposite. Qatadah and As-Suddi said, "The sun is a guide which follows the shade until the shade disappears. ''
﴿ثُمَّ قَبَضْنَـهُ إِلَيْنَا قَبْضاً يَسِيراً ﴾
(Then We withdraw it towards Ourselves -- a gradual withdrawal.) This refers to the shade.
(gradual) meaning slowly. As-Suddi said: "A gentle, concealed, withdrawal until there is no shade left on earth except under a roof or a tree, and the sun is shining on whatever is above it.''
(a gradual withdrawal.) Ayyub bin Musa said: "Little by little.
﴿وَهُوَ الَّذِى جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الَّيْلَ لِبَاساً﴾
(And it is He Who makes the night a covering for you,) It covers and conceals all things. This is like the Ayah:
﴿وَالَّيْلِ إِذَا يَغْشَى ﴾
(By the night as it envelops) (92:1).
(and the sleep a repose,) means, a halt to movement so that bodies may rest. For the faculties and limbs get tired from their constant movement during the day when one goes out to earn a living. When night comes, and it becomes quiet, they stop moving, and rest; so sleep provides a rejuvenation for both the body and the soul.
﴿وَجَعَلَ النَّهَارَ نُشُوراً﴾
(and makes the day Nushur) meaning, people get up and go out to earn a living and attend to their business. This is like the Ayah:
﴿وَمِن رَّحْمَتِهِ جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ لِتَسْكُنُواْ فِيهِ وَلِتَبتَغُواْ مِن فَضْلِهِ﴾
(It is out of His mercy that He has made for you the night and the day that you may rest therein and that you may seek of His bounty...) (28:73)
﴿لِّنُحْيِىَ بِهِ بَلْدَةً مَّيْتاً وَنُسْقِيَهِ مِمَّا خَلَقْنَآ أَنْعَـماً وَأَنَاسِىَّ كَثِيراً - وَلَقَدْ صَرَّفْنَـهُ بَيْنَهُمْ لِيَذَّكَّرُواْ فَأَبَى أَكْثَرُ النَّاسِ إِلاَّ كُفُوراً ﴾
(48. And it is He Who sends the winds as heralds of glad tidings, going before His mercy; and We send down pure water from the sky,) (49. That We may give life thereby to a dead land, and We give to drink thereof many of the cattle and men that We have created.) (50. And indeed We have distributed it among them in order that they may remember the grace of Allah, but most men refuse (out of) gratitude.)
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