|The Qur'an and the Disbelievers turning away;|
They could be compelled to believe if Allah so willed At the beginning of the explanation of Surat Al-Baqarah we discussed the letters which appear at the beginning of some Surahs. Allah's saying:
﴿تِلْكَ ءايَاتُ الْكِتَـبِ الْمُبِينِ﴾
(These are the Ayat of the Book Mubin.) means, these are the verses of the Clear Qur'an, i.e. the clear and unambiguous Book which distinguishes between truth and falsehood, misguidance and guidance.
﴿لَعَلَّكَ بَـخِعٌ نَّفْسَكَ﴾
(It may be that you are going Bakhi` yourself,) means, destroy yourself -- because of your keenness that they should be guided and your grief for them.
﴿أَلاَّ يَكُونُواْ مُؤْمِنِينَ﴾
(that they do not become believers.) Here Allah is consoling His Messenger for the lack of faith of those among the disbelievers who do not believe in him. This is like the Ayat:
﴿فَلاَ تَذْهَبْ نَفْسُكَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَسَرَتٍ﴾
(So destroy not yourself in sorrow for them) (35:8).
﴿فَلَعَلَّكَ بَـخِعٌ نَّفْسَكَ عَلَى ءَاثَـرِهِمْ إِن لَّمْ يُؤْمِنُواْ بِهَـذَا الْحَدِيثِ أَسَفاً ﴾
(Perhaps, you would Bakhi` yourself, over their footsteps, because they believe not in this narration) (18:6). Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Qatadah, `Atiyyah, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan and others said that:
﴿لَعَلَّكَ بَـخِعٌ نَّفْسَكَ﴾
(It may be that you are going Bakhi` yourself,) means, `kill yourself.' Then Allah says:
﴿إِن نَّشَأْ نُنَزِّلْ عَلَيْهِمْ مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ ءَايَةً فَظَلَّتْ أَعْنَـقُهُمْ لَهَا خَـضِعِينَ ﴾
(If We will, We could send down to them from the heaven a sign, to which they would bend their necks in humility.) meaning, `if We so willed, We could send down a sign that would force them to believe, but We will not do that because We do not want anyone to believe except by choice.' Allah says:
﴿وَلَوْ شَآءَ رَبُّكَ لآمَنَ مَن فِى الاٌّرْضِ كُلُّهُمْ جَمِيعًا أَفَأَنتَ تُكْرِهُ النَّاسَ حَتَّى يَكُونُواْ مُؤْمِنِينَ ﴾
(And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed, all of them together. So, will you then compel mankind, until they become believers.) (10:99)
﴿وَلَوْ شَآءَ رَبُّكَ لَجَعَلَ النَّاسَ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً﴾
(And if your Lord had so willed, He could surely, have made mankind one Ummah...) (11:118) But Allah's will has acted, His decree has come to pass, and His proof has been conveyed to mankind by mission of Messengers and the revelation of Books to them. Then Allah says:
﴿وَمَا يَأْتِيهِم مِّن ذِكْرٍ مِّنَ الرَّحْمَـنِ مُحْدَثٍ إِلاَّ كَانُواْ عَنْهُ مُعْرِضِينَ ﴾
(And never comes there unto them a Reminder as a recent revelation from the Most Gracious, but they turn away therefrom.) meaning, every time a Scripture comes from heaven to them, most of the people turn away from it. As Allah says:
﴿وَمَآ أَكْثَرُ النَّاسِ وَلَوْ حَرَصْتَ بِمُؤْمِنِينَ ﴾
(And most of mankind will not believe even if you desire it eagerly.) (12:103)
﴿يحَسْرَةً عَلَى الْعِبَادِ مَا يَأْتِيهِمْ مِّن رَّسُولٍ إِلاَّ كَانُواْ بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِءُونَ ﴾
(Alas for mankind! There never came a Messenger to them but they used to mock at him.) (36:30)
﴿ثُمَّ أَرْسَلْنَا رُسُلَنَا تَتْرَى كُلَّ مَا جَآءَ أُمَّةً رَّسُولُهَا كَذَّبُوهُ﴾
(Then We sent Our Messengers in succession. Every time there came to a nation their Messenger, they denied him...) (23:44). Allah says here:
﴿فَقَدْ كَذَّبُواْ فَسَيَأْتِيهِمْ أَنبَـؤُا مَا كَانُواْ بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِءُونَ ﴾
(So, they have indeed denied, then the news of what they mocked at will come to them.) meaning, they denied the truth that came to them, so they will come to know the news of the consequences of this denial after a while.
﴿وَسَيَعْلَمْ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ أَىَّ مُنقَلَبٍ يَنقَلِبُونَ﴾
(And those who do wrong will come to know by what overturning they will be overturned) (26:227). Then Allah tells those who dared to oppose His Messenger and disbelieve in His Book, that He is the Subduer, the Almighty, the All-Powerful, Who created the earth and caused every good kind of crop, fruit and animal to grow therein. Sufyan Ath-Thawri narrated from a man from Ash-Sha`bi that people are a product of the earth. So whoever enters Paradise is good and noble, and whoever enters Hell is base and vile.
﴿إِنَّ فِى ذَلِكَ لآيَةً﴾
(Verily, in this is an Ayah,) meaning an evidence of the power of the Creator of all things. He spread out the earth and raised the canopy of the heavens, yet despite that the majority of people do not believe, rather they deny Him, His Messengers, and His Books, and they go against His commands doing the things He had prohibited. His saying:
﴿وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ﴾
(And verily your Lord, He is truly the All-Mighty,) means, the One Who has power over all things, to subdue and control them,
(the Most Merciful. ) means, towards His creation, for He does not hasten to punish the one who sins, but He gives him time to repent, and if he does not, then He seizes him with a mighty punishment. Abu Al-`Aliyah, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Ibn Ishaq said: "He is Almighty in His punishment of those who went against His commands and worshipped others besides Him.'' Sa`id bin Jubayr said: "He is Most Merciful towards those who repent to Him and turn to Him.''
﴿وَإِذْ نَادَى رَبُّكَ مُوسَى أَنِ ائْتَ الْقَوْمَ الظَّـلِمِينَ - قَوْمَ فِرْعَوْنَ أَلا يَتَّقُونَ - قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّى أَخَافُ أَن يُكَذِّبُونِ - وَيَضِيقُ صَدْرِى وَلاَ يَنطَلِقُ لِسَانِى فَأَرْسِلْ إِلَى هَـرُونَ - وَلَهُمْ عَلَىَّ ذَنبٌ فَأَخَافُ أَن يَقْتُلُونِ - قَالَ كَلاَّ فَاذْهَبَا بِـَايَـتِنَآ إِنَّا مَعَكُمْ مُّسْتَمِعُونَ - فَأْتِيَا فِرْعَوْنَ فَقُولا إِنَّا رَسُولُ رَبِّ الْعَـلَمِينَ - أَنْ أَرْسِلْ مَعَنَا بَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ - قَالَ أَلَمْ نُرَبِّكَ فِينَا وَلِيداً وَلَبِثْتَ فِينَا مِنْ عُمُرِكَ سِنِينَ - وَفَعَلْتَ فَعْلَتَكَ الَّتِى فَعَلْتَ وَأَنتَ مِنَ الْكَـفِرِينَ - قَالَ فَعَلْتُهَآ إِذاً وَأَنَاْ مِنَ الضَّآلِّينَ - فَفَرَرْتُ مِنكُمْ لَمَّا خِفْتُكُمْ فَوَهَبَ لِى رَبِّى حُكْماً وَجَعَلَنِى مِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ - وَتِلْكَ نِعْمَةٌ تَمُنُّهَا عَلَىَّ أَنْ عَبَّدتَّ بَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ ﴾
(10. And (remember) when your Lord called Musa (saying): "Go to the people who are wrongdoers.'') (11. "The people of Fira`wn. Will they not have Taqwa'') (12. He said: "My Lord! Verily, I fear that they will deny me,'') (13. "And my breast straitens, and my tongue expresses not well. So send for Harun.'') (14. "And they have a charge of crime against me, and I fear they will kill me. '') (15. (Allah) said: "Nay! Go you both with Our signs. Verily, We shall be with you, listening.'') (16. "And go both of you to Fira`wn, and say: `We are the Messengers of the Lord of Al-`Alamin,') (17. `So allow the Children of Israel to go with us.''') (18. (Fir`awn) said (to Musa): "Did we not bring you up among us as a child And you did dwell many years of your life with us.'') (19. "And you did your deed, which you did. While you were one of the ingrates.'') (20. Musa said: "I did it then, when I was in error.'') (21. "So, I fled from you when I feared you. But my Lord has granted me Hukm, and made me one of the Messengers.'') (22. "And this is the past favor with which you reproach me, -- that you have enslaved the Children of Israel.'')
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