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The Command to warn His Tribe of near Kindred Print E-mail

Here Allah commands (His Prophet ) to worship Him alone, with no partner or associate, and tells him that whoever associates others in worship with Him, He will punish them. Then Allah commands His Messenger to warn his tribe of near kindred, i.e., those who were most closely related to him, and to tell them that nothing could save any of them except for faith in Allah. Allah also commanded him to be kind and gentle with the believing servants of Allah who followed him, and to disown those who disobeyed him, no matter who they were. Allah said:

﴿فَإِنْ عَصَوْكَ فَقُلْ إِنِّى بَرِىءٌ مِّمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ ﴾

(Then if they disobey you, say: "I am innocent of what you do.'') This specific warning does not contradict the general warning; indeed it is a part of it, as Allah says elsewhere:

﴿لِتُنذِرَ قَوْماً مَّآ أُنذِرَ ءَابَآؤُهُمْ فَهُمْ غَـفِلُونَ ﴾

(In order that you may warn a people whose forefathers were not warned, so they are heedless.) (36:6),

﴿لِّتُنذِرَ أُمَّ الْقُرَى وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا﴾

(that you may warn the Mother of the Towns and all around it) (42:7),

﴿وَأَنذِرْ بِهِ الَّذِينَ يَخَافُونَ أَن يُحْشَرُواْ إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ﴾

(And warn therewith those who fear that they will be gathered before their Lord) (6:51),

﴿لِتُبَشِّرَ بِهِ الْمُتَّقِينَ وَتُنْذِرَ بِهِ قَوْماً لُّدّاً﴾

(that you may give glad tidings to those who have Taqwa, and warn with it the most quarrelsome people.) (19:97),

﴿لاٌّنذِرَكُمْ بِهِ وَمَن بَلَغَ﴾

(that I may therewith warn you and whomsoever it may reach) (6:19), and

﴿وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِهِ مِنَ الاٌّحْزَابِ فَالنَّارُ مَوْعِدُهُ﴾

(but those of the sects that reject it, the Fire will be their promised meeting place) (11:17). According to Sahih Muslim, ﴿the Prophet said:﴾

«وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ، لَا يَسْمَعُ بِي أَحَدٌ مِنْ هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ يَهُودِيٌّ وَلَا نَصْرَانِيٌّ، ثُمَّ لَا يُؤْمِنُ بِي إِلَّا دَخَلَ النَّار»

(By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, no one from these nations -- Jewish or Christian -- hears of me then does not believe in me, but he will enter Hell.) Many Hadiths have been narrated concerning the revelation of this Ayah, some of which we will quote below: Imam Ahmad, may Allah have mercy on him, recorded that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "When Allah revealed the Ayah,

﴿وَأَنذِرْ عَشِيرَتَكَ الاٌّقْرَبِينَ ﴾

(And warn your tribe of near kindred.), the Prophet went to As-Safa', climbed up and called out,

«يَا صَبَاحَاه»

(O people!) The people gathered around him, some coming of their own accord and others sending people on their behalf to find out what was happening. The Messenger of Allah said:

«يَا بَنِي عَبْدِالْمُطَّلِبِ، يَا بَنِي فِهْرٍ، يَااَبنِي لُؤَيَ، أَرَأَيْتُمْ لَوْ أَخْبَرْتُكُمْ أَنَّ خَيْلًا بِسَفْحِ هَذَا الْجَبَلِ تُريدُ أَنْ تُغِيرَ عَلَيْكُمْ صَدَّقْتُمُونِي؟»

(O Bani `Abd Al-Muttalib, O Bani Fihr, O Bani Lu'ayy! What do you think, if I told you that there was a cavalry at the foot of this mountain coming to attack you -- would you believe me) They said, "Yes.'' He said:

«فَإِنِّي نَذِيرٌ لَكُمْ بَيْنَ يَدَي عَذَابٍ شَدِيد»

(Then I warn you of a great punishment that is close at hand.) Abu Lahab said, "May you perish for the rest of the day! You only called us to tell us this'' Then Allah revealed:

﴿تَبَّتْ يَدَآ أَبِى لَهَبٍ وَتَبَّ ﴾

(Perish the two hands of Abu Lahab and perish he!) ﴿111:1﴾ This was also recorded by Al-Bukhari, Muslim, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i. Imam Ahmad recorded that `A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her said: "When the Ayah:

﴿وَأَنذِرْ عَشِيرَتَكَ الاٌّقْرَبِينَ ﴾

(And warn your tribe of near kindred) was revealed, the Messenger of Allah stood up and said:

«يَا فَاطِمَةُ ابْنَةُ مُحَمَّدٍ، يَا صَفِيَّةُ ابْنَةُ عَبْدِالْمُطَّلِبِ، يَا بَنِي عَبْدِالْمُطَّلِبِ، لَا أَمْلِكُ لَكُمْ مِنَ اللهِ شَيْئًا سَلُونِي مِنْ مَالِي مَا شِئْتُم»

(O Fatimah daughter of Muhammad, O Safiyyah daughter of `Abd Al-Muttalib, O Bani `Abd Al-Muttalib, I cannot help you before Allah. Ask me for whatever you want of my wealth.) This was recorded by Muslim. Imam Ahmad recorded that Qabisah bin Mukhariq and Zuhayr bin `Amr said: "When the Ayah:

﴿وَأَنذِرْ عَشِيرَتَكَ الاٌّقْرَبِينَ ﴾

(And warn your tribe of near kindred.) was revealed, the Messenger of Allah climbed on top of a rock on the side of a mountain and started to call out:

«يَا بَنِي عَبْدِ مَنَافٍ، إِنَّمَا أَنَا نَذِيرٌ، وَإِنَّمَا مَثَلِي وَمَثَلُكُمْ كَرَجُلٍ رَأَى الْعَدُوَّ فَذَهَبَ يَرْبَأُ أَهْلَهُ يَخْشَى أَنْ يَسْبِقُوهُ، فَجَعَلَ يُنَادِي وَيَهْتِفُ: يَا صَبَاحَاه»

(O Bani `Abd Manaf, I am indeed a warner, and the parable of me and you is that of a man who sees the enemy so he goes to save his family, fearing that the enemy may reach them before he does.) And he started to call out, (O people!) It was also recorded by Muslim and An-Nasa'i. Allah's saying:

﴿وَتَوكَّلْ عَلَى الْعَزِيزِ الرَّحِيمِ ﴾

(And put your trust in the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful,) means, `in all your affairs, for He is your Helper, Protector and Supporter, and He is the One Who will cause you to prevail and will make your word supreme.'

﴿الَّذِى يَرَاكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ ﴾

(Who sees you when you stand up. ) means, He is taking care of you. This is like the Ayah,

﴿وَاصْبِرْ لِحُكْمِ رَبِّكَ فَإِنَّكَ بِأَعْيُنِنَا﴾

(So wait patiently for the decision of your Lord, for verily, you are under Our Eyes) (52:48) Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah,

﴿الَّذِى يَرَاكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ ﴾

(Who sees you when you stand up.) means, "To pray.'' `Ikrimah said: "He sees him when he stands and bows and prostrates.'' Al-Hasan said:

﴿الَّذِى يَرَاكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ ﴾

(Who sees you when you stand up.) "When you pray alone.'' Ad-Dahhak said:

﴿الَّذِى يَرَاكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ ﴾

(Who sees you when you stand up.) "When you are lying in bed and when you are sitting.'' Qatadah said:

﴿الَّذِى يَرَاكَ﴾

(Who sees you) "When you are standing, when you are sitting, and in all other situations.''

﴿وَتَقَلُّبَكَ فِى السَّـجِدِينَ ﴾

(And your movements among those who fall prostrate.) Qatadah said:

﴿الَّذِى يَرَاكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ ﴾

وَتَقَلُّبَكَ فِى السَّـجِدِينَ-﴾

(Who sees you when you stand up. And your movements among those who fall prostrate.) "When you pray, He sees you when you pray alone and when you pray in congregation.'' This was also the view of `Ikrimah, `Ata' Al-Khurasani and Al-Hasan Al-Basri.

﴿إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ ﴾

(Verily, He, only He, is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.) He hears all that His servants say and He knows all their movements, as He says:

﴿وَمَا تَكُونُ فِى شَأْنٍ وَمَا تَتْلُواْ مِنْهُ مِن قُرْءَانٍ وَلاَ تَعْمَلُونَ مِنْ عَمَلٍ إِلاَّ كُنَّا عَلَيْكُمْ شُهُودًا إِذْ تُفِيضُونَ فِيهِ﴾

(Neither you do any deed nor recite any portion of the Qur'an, nor you do any deed, but We are Witness thereof, when you are doing it) (10:61).

﴿هَلْ أُنَبِّئُكُمْ عَلَى مَن تَنَزَّلُ الشَّيَـطِينُ - تَنَزَّلُ عَلَى كُلِّ أَفَّاكٍ أَثِيمٍ - يُلْقُونَ السَّمْعَ وَأَكْثَرُهُمْ كَـذِبُونَ - وَالشُّعَرَآءُ يَتَّبِعُهُمُ الْغَاوُونَ - أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّهُمْ فِى كُلِّ وَادٍ يَهِيمُونَ - وَأَنَّهُمْ يَقُولُونَ مَا لاَ يَفْعَلُونَ - إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ وَذَكَرُواْ اللَّهَ كَثِيراً وَانتَصَرُواْ مِن بَعْدِ مَا ظُلِمُواْ وَسَيَعْلَمْ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ أَىَّ مُنقَلَبٍ يَنقَلِبُونَ ﴾

(221. Shall I inform you upon whom the Shayatin descend) (222. They descend on every lying, sinful person (Athim).) (223. Who gives ear, and most of them are liars.) (224. As for the poets, the astray follow them,) (225. See you not that they speak about every subject in their poetry) (226. And that they say what they do not do.) (227. Except those who believe and do righteous deeds, and remember Allah much and vindicate themselves after they have been wronged. And those who do wrong will come to know by what overturning they will be overturned.)

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