(...nor commit sin) Miqsam and several other scholars related that Ibn `Abbas said, "It is disobedience." This is also the opinion of `Ata,' Mujahid, Tawus, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Az-Zuhri, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, `Ata' bin Yasar, `Ata' Al-Khurasani and Muqatil bin Hayyan.
Ibn Wahb reported that Nafi` narrated that `Abdullah bin `Umar said, "Fusuq ﴿or sin mentioned in the Ayah (2:197)﴾ refers to committing what Allah has forbidden in the Sacred Area.''
Several others said that Fusuq means cursing others, they based this on the authentic Hadith:
«سِبَابُ الْمُسْلِمِ فُسُوقٌ وَقِتَالُهُ كُفْر»
(Cursing the Muslim is Fusuq, while fighting him is Kufr.)
`Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said Fusuq here means slaughtering animals for the idols, as Allah said:
﴿أَوْ فِسْقًا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ بِهِ﴾
(...or impious (Fisq) meat (of an animal) which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah.) (6: 145)
Ad-Dahhak said that Fusuq is insulting one another with bad nicknames.
Those who said that the Fusuq means all types of disobedience are correct. Allah has also prohibited committing injustice during the months of Hajj in specific, although injustice is prohibited throughout the year. This is why Allah said:
﴿مِنْهَآ أَرْبَعَةٌ حُرُمٌ ذلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ فَلاَ تَظْلِمُواْ فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ﴾
(...of them four are sacred. That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein.) (9:36)
Allah said about the Sacred Area:
﴿وَمَن يُرِدْ فِيهِ بِإِلْحَادٍ بِظُلْمٍ نُّذِقْهُ مِنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ﴾
(...and whoever inclines to evil actions therein or to do wrong, him We shall cause to taste from a painful torment.) (22:25)
It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Abu Hurayrah narrated that Allah's Messenger said:
«مَنْ حَجَّ هَذَا الْبَيْتَ، فَلَمْ يَرْفُثْ وَلَمْ يَفْسُقْ خَرَجَ مِنْ ذُنُوبِهِ كَيَوْمَ وَلَدَتْهُ أُمُّه»
(Whoever performed Hajj to this (Sacred) House and did not commit Rafath or Fusuq, will return sinless, just as the day his mother gave birth to him.)