|The Parable of Shirk|
﴿وَلَقَدْ ضَرَبْنَا لِلنَّاسِ فِى هَـذَا الْقُرْءَانِ مِن كُلِّ مَثَلٍ﴾
(And indeed We have put forth for men, in this Qur'an every kind of parable) means, `We have explained things to mankind in it ﴿the Qur'an﴾ by setting forth examples and parables.'
(in order that they may remember.) Because parables bring the meaning closer to people's minds. As Allah says:
﴿ضَرَبَ لَكُمْ مَّثَلاً مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ﴾
(He sets forth for you a parable from yourselves) (30:28). meaning, `so that you may learn it from yourselves.' And Allah says:
﴿وَتِلْكَ الاٌّمْثَالُ نَضْرِبُهَا لِلنَّاسِ وَمَا يَعْقِلُهَآ إِلاَّ الْعَـلِمُونَ ﴾
(in Order that they may have Taqwa of Him.) (29:43).
﴿قُرْءَاناً عَرَبِيّاً غَيْرَ ذِى عِوَجٍ﴾
(An Arabic Qur'an, without any crookedness (therein)) means, it is in a plain Arabic tongue, with no crookedness, deviation or confusion. It is plain, clear proof. Allah has made it like this and has revealed it like this,
(in order that they may have Taqwa of Him) means, in order that they may heed the warnings contained therein, and strive to attain the promises therein. Then Allah says:
﴿ضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلاً رَّجُلاً فِيهِ شُرَكَآءُ مُتَشَـكِسُونَ﴾
(Allah puts forth a parable: a man belonging to many partners disputing with one another,) meaning, they were disputing concerning that slave in whom they all had a share.
﴿وَرَجُلاً سَلَماً لِّرَجُلٍ﴾
(and a (slave) man belonging entirely to one master.) means, no one owned him except that one man.
﴿هَلْ يَسْتَوِيَانِ مَثَلاً﴾
(Are those two equal in comparison) meaning, they are not the same. By the same token, the idolator who worships other gods besides Allah and the sincere believer who worships none besides Allah, with no partner or associate, are not equal. What comparison can there be between them Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid and others said, "This Ayah is the parable of the idolator and the sincere believer.'' Because this parable is so clear and obvious, Allah then says:
(All the praises and thanks be to Allah!) i.e., for establishing proof against them.
﴿بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ﴾
(But most of them know not. ) means, and for this reason they associate others in worship with Allah.
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