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Abolition of Adoption Print E-mail

Before Allah discusses ideas and theoretical matters, He gives tangible examples: one man cannot have two hearts in his body, and a man's wife does not become his mother if he says the words of Zihar to her: "You are to me like the back of my mother.'' By the same token, an adopted child does not become the son of the man who adopts him and calls him his son. Allah says:

﴿مَّا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِرَجُلٍ مِّن قَلْبَيْنِ فِى جَوْفِهِ وَمَا جَعَلَ أَزْوَجَكُمُ اللاَّئِى تُظَـهِرُونَ مِنْهُنَّ أُمَّهَـتِكُمْ﴾

(Allah has not made for any man two hearts inside his body. Neither has He made your wives whom you declare to be like your mothers' backs, your real mothers...) This is like the Ayah:

﴿مَّا هُنَّ أُمَّهَـتِهِمْ إِنْ أُمَّهَـتُهُمْ إِلاَّ اللاَّئِى وَلَدْنَهُمْ﴾

(They cannot be their mothers. None can be their mothers except those who gave them birth) (58:2).

﴿وَمَا جَعَلَ أَدْعِيَآءَكُمْ أَبْنَآءَكُمْ﴾

(nor has He made your adopted sons your real sons.) This was revealed concerning Zayd bin Harithah, may Allah be pleased with him, the freed servant of the Prophet . The Prophet had adopted him before prophethood, and he was known as Zayd bin Muhammad. Allah wanted to put an end to this naming and attribution, as He said:

﴿وَمَا جَعَلَ أَدْعِيَآءَكُمْ أَبْنَآءَكُمْ﴾

(nor has He made your adopted sons your real sons. ) This is similar to the Ayah later in this Surah:

﴿مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَآ أَحَدٍ مّن رِّجَالِكُمْ وَلَـكِن رَّسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيماً ﴾

(Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the last (end) of the Prophets. And Allah is Ever All-Aware of everything.) (33:40). And Allah says here:

﴿ذَلِكُمْ قَوْلُكُم بِأَفْوَهِكُمْ﴾

(That is but your saying with your mouths.) meaning, `your adoption of him is just words, and it does not mean that he is really your son,' for he was created from the loins of another man, and a child cannot have two fathers just as a man cannot have two hearts in one body.

﴿وَاللَّهُ يَقُولُ الْحَقَّ وَهُوَ يَهْدِى السَّبِيلَ﴾

(But Allah says the truth, and He guides to the way.) Sa`id bin Jubayr said:

﴿يَقُولُ الْحَقَّ﴾

(But Allah says the truth,) means, justice. Qatadah said:

﴿وَهُوَ يَهْدِى السَّبِيلَ﴾

(and He guides to the way) means, the straight path. Imam Ahmad said that Hasan told them that Zuhayr told them from Qabus, meaning Ibn Abi Zibyan, that his father told him: "I said to Ibn `Abbas, `Do you know the Ayah,

﴿مَّا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِرَجُلٍ مِّن قَلْبَيْنِ فِى جَوْفِهِ﴾

(Allah has not made for any man two hearts inside his body.) What does this mean' He said that the Messenger of Allah stood up one day to pray, and he trembled. The hypocrites who were praying with him said, `Do you not see that he has two hearts, one heart with you and another with them' Then Allah revealed the words:

﴿مَّا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِرَجُلٍ مِّن قَلْبَيْنِ فِى جَوْفِهِ﴾

(Allah has not made for any man two hearts inside his body.)'' This was also narrated by At-Tirmidhi, who said, "It is a Hasan Hadith''. It was also narrated by Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim from the Hadith of Zuhayr.

 
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