|The Book of Musa and the Leadership of the Children of Israel|
Allah tells us that He gave the Book -- the Tawrah -- to His servant and Messenger Musa, peace be upon him.
﴿فَلاَ تَكُن فِى مِرْيَةٍ مِّن لِّقَآئِهِ﴾
(So, be not you in doubt of meeting him.) Qatadah said, "This refers to the Night of Isra','' then he narrated that Abu Al-`Aliyah Ar-Riyahi said, "The cousin of your Prophet, meaning Ibn `Abbas, told me that the Messenger of Allah said:
«أُرِيتُ لَيْلَةَ أُسْرِيَ بِي مُوسى بْنَ عِمْرَانَ رَجُلًا آدَمَ طِوَالًا جَعْدًا كَأَنَّهُ مِنْ رِجَالِ شَنُوءَةَ، وَرَأَيْتُ عِيسى رَجُلًا مَرْبُوعَ الْخَلْقِ إِلَى الْحُمْرَةِ وَالْبَيَاضِ، سَبْط الرَّأْسِ، وَرَأَيْتُ مَالِكًا خَازِنَ النَّارِ وَالدَّجَّال»
(On the night of Isra', I saw Musa bin `Imran, a tall, brown-skinned man with curly hair, looking like the men of Shanu'ah; and I saw `Isa, a man of medium stature and ruddy white skin, and with lank hair. And I saw Malik the Keeper of Hell, and the Dajjal.) Among the signs which Allah showed him were:
﴿فَلاَ تَكُن فِى مِرْيَةٍ مِّن لِّقَآئِهِ﴾
(So, be not you in doubt of meeting him.) i.e., he saw Musa and met with him on the Night of Isra'.''
(And We made it) means, `the Book which We gave to him, '
﴿هُدًى لِّبَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ﴾
(a guide to the Children of Israel.) This is similar to what Allah says in Surat Al-Isra':
﴿وَءَاتَيْنَآ مُوسَى الْكِتَـبَ وَجَعَلْنَاهُ هُدًى لِّبَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ أَلاَّ تَتَّخِذُواْ مِن دُونِى وَكِيلاً ﴾
(And We gave Musa the Scripture and made it a guidance for the Children of Israel (saying): "Take none other than Me as Trustee.'') (17:2)
﴿وَجَعَلْنَا مِنْهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا لَمَّا صَبَرُواْ وَكَانُواْ بِـَايَـتِنَا يُوقِنُونَ ﴾
(And We made from among them, leaders, giving guidance under Our command, when they were patient and used to believe with certainty in Our Ayat.) means, because they were patient in adhering to the commands of Allah and avoiding what He prohibited, and they believed in His Messengers and followed what they brought, there were among them leaders who guided others to the truth by the command of Allah, calling for goodness, enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong. Then when they changed ﴿the Words of Allah﴾, twisting and distorting them, they lost that position and their hearts became hard. They change the words from their places, so they do no righteous deeds and have no correct beliefs. Allah says:
﴿وَجَعَلْنَا مِنْهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا لَمَّا صَبَرُواْ﴾
(And We made from among them (Children of Israel), leaders, giving guidance under Our command, when they were patient) Qatadah and Sufyan said: "When they patiently shunned the temptations of this world.'' This was also the view of Al-Hasan bin Salih. Sufyan said, "This is how these people were. A man cannot be an example to be followed unless he shuns the temptation of this world.'' Allah says:
﴿وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا بَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ الْكِتَـبَ وَالْحُكْمَ وَالنُّبُوَّةَ وَرَزَقْنَـهُمْ مِّنَ الطَّيِّبَـتِ وَفَضَّلْنَـهُمْ عَلَى الْعَـلَمينَ وَءاتَيْنَـهُم بَيِّنَـتٍ مِّنَ الاٌّمْرِ﴾
(And indeed We gave the Children of Israel the Scripture, and the understanding of the Scripture and its laws, and the prophethood; and provided them with good things, and preferred them above the nations. And We gave them clear proofs in matters.) (45:16-17). And He says here:
﴿إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ يَفْصِلُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقَيَـمَةِ فِيمَا كَانُواْ فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ ﴾
(Verily, your Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection, concerning that wherein they used to differ.) meaning, with regard to beliefs and actions.
﴿أَوَلَمْ يَهْدِ لَهُمْ كَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا مِن قَبْلِهِمْ مِّنَ الْقُرُونِ يَمْشُونَ فِى مَسَاكِنِهِمْ إِنَّ فِى ذَلِكَ لاّيَاتٍ أَفَلاَ يَسْمَعُونَ - أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْاْ أَنَّا نَسُوقُ الْمَآءَ إِلَى الاٌّرْضِ الْجُرُزِ فَنُخْرِجُ بِهِ زَرْعاً تَأْكُلُ مِنْهُ أَنْعَـمُهُمْ وَأَنفُسُهُمْ أَفَلاَ يُبْصِرُونَ ﴾
(26. Is it not a guidance for them: how many generations We have destroyed before them in whose dwellings they do walk about Verily, therein indeed are signs. Would they not then listen) (27. Have they not seen how We drive water to the dry land that has no vegetation, and therewith bring forth crops providing food for their cattle and themselves Will they not then see)
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