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Some Details of the Battle of Badr Print E-mail

Allah describes Yawm Al-Furqan, (i.e. the day of Badr),

﴿إِذْ أَنتُم بِالْعُدْوَةِ الدُّنْيَا﴾

((And remember) when you (the Muslim army) were on the near side of the valley,) camping in the closest entrance of the valley towards Al-Madinah,


(and they), the idolators, who were camped,

﴿بِالْعُدْوَةِ الْقُصْوَى﴾

(on the farther side), from Al-Madinah, towards Makkah.


(and the caravan), that was under the command of Abu Sufyan, with the wealth that it contained,

﴿أَسْفَلَ مِنكُمْ﴾

(on the ground lower than you), closer to the sea,

﴿وَلَوْ تَوَاعَدتُّمْ﴾

(even if you had made a mutual appointment to meet,) you and the idolators,

﴿لاَخْتَلَفْتُمْ فِي الْمِيعَـدِ﴾

(you would certainly have failed in the appointment)

Muhammad bin Ishaq said, "Yahya bin `Abbad bin `Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr narrated to me from his father about this Ayah "Had there been an appointed meeting set between you and them and you came to know of their superior numbers and your few forces, you would not have met them,

﴿وَلَـكِن لِّيَقْضِيَ اللَّهُ أَمْراً كَانَ مَفْعُولاً﴾

(but (you met) that Allah might accomplish a matter already ordained,) Allah had decreed that He would bring glory to Islam and its people, while disgracing Shirk and its people. You ﴿the companions﴾ had no knowledge this would happen, but it was out of Allah's compassion that He did that.'' In a Hadith, Ka`b bin Malik said, "The Messenger of Allah and the Muslims marched to intercept the Quraysh caravan, but Allah made them meet their (armed) enemy without appointment.'' Muhammad bin Ishaq said that Yazid bin Ruwman narrated to him that `Urwah bin Az-Zubayr said, "Upon approaching Badr, the Messenger of Allah sent `Ali bin Abi Talib, Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas, Az-Zubayr bin Al-`Awwam and several other Companions to spy the pagans. They captured two boys, a servant of Bani Sa`id bin Al-`As and a servant of Bani Al-Hajjaj, while they were bringing water for Quraysh. So they brought them to the Messenger of Allah , but found him praying. The Companions started interrogating the boys, asking them to whom they belonged. Both of them said that they were employees bringing water for Quraysh (army). The Componions were upset with that answer, since they thought that the boys belonged to Abu Sufyan (who was commanding the caravan). So they beat the two boys vehemently, who said finally that they belonged to Abu Sufyan. Thereupon companions left them alone. When the Prophet ended the prayer, he said,

«إَذَا صَدَّقَاكُمْ ضَرَبْتُمُوهُمَا، وَإِذَا كَذَّبَاكُمْ تَرَكْتُمُوهُمَا، صَدَقَا وَاللهِ إِنَّهُمَا لِقُرَيْشٍ ، أَخْبِرَانِي عَنْ قُرَيْش»

(When they tell you the truth you beat them, but when they lie you let them go They have said the truth, by Allah! They belong to the Quraysh. (addressing to the boys He said:) Tell me the news about Quraysh.)

The two boys said, `They are behind this hill that you see, on the far side of the valley.' The Messenger of Allah asked,

«كَمِ الْقَوْمُ؟»

(How many are they)

They said, `They are many.' He asked,


(How many) They said, `We do not know the precise number.' He asked,

«كَمْ يَنْحَرُونَ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ؟»

(How many camels do they slaughter every day)

They said, `Nine or ten a day.' The Messenger of Allah said,

«الْقَوْمُ مَا بَيْنَ التِّسْعمِائَةِ إِلَى الْأَلْف»

(They are between nine-hundred and a thousand.) He asked again,

«فَمَنْ فِيهِمْ مِنْ أَشْرَافِ قُرَيْشٍ؟»

(Which chiefs of Quraysh are accompanying the army) They said, `Utbah bin Rabi`ah, Shaybah bin Rabi`ah, Abu Al-Bakhtari bin Hisham, Hakim bin Hizam, Nawfal bin Khuwaylid, Al-Harith bin `Amir bin Nawfal, Tu`aymah bin Adi bin Nawfal, An-Nadr bin Al-Harith, Zam`ah bin Al-Aswad, Abu Jahl bin Hisham, Umayyah bin Khalaf, Nabih and Munabbih sons of Al-Hajjaj, Suhayl bin `Amr and `Amr bin `Abd Wadd.' The Messenger of Allah said to the people,

«هَذِهِ مَكَّةُ قَدْ أَلْقَتْ إِلَيْكُمْ أَفَلَاذَ كَبِدِهَا»

(This is Makkah! She has brought you her most precious sons (its chiefs)!)''

Allah said,

﴿لِّيَهْلِكَ مَنْ هَلَكَ عَن بَيِّنَةٍ وَيَحْيَى مَنْ حَىَّ عَن بَيِّنَةٍ﴾

(So that those who were to be destroyed might be destroyed after a clear evidence.) ﴿8:42﴾

Muhammad bin Ishaq commented, "So that those who disbelieve do so after witnessing clear evidence, proof and lessons, and those who believe do so after witnessing the same.'' This is a sound explanation. Allah says, He made you meet your enemy in one area without appointment, so that He gives you victory over them.' This way, `He will raise the word of truth above falsehood, so that the matter is made clear, the proof unequivocal and the evidence plain. Then there will be no more plea or doubt for anyone. Then, those destined to destruction by persisting in disbelief do so with evidence, aware that they are misguided and that proof has been established against them,

﴿وَيَحْيَى مَنْ حَىَّ﴾

(and those who were to live might live), those who wish to believe do so,

﴿عَن بَيِّنَةٍ﴾

(after a clear evidence), and proof. Verily, faith is the life of the heart, as Allah said,

﴿أَوَمَن كَانَ مَيْتًا فَأَحْيَيْنَـهُ وَجَعَلْنَا لَهُ نُورًا يَمْشِي بِهِ فِى النَّاسِ كَمَن﴾

(Is he who was dead (without faith by ignorance and disbelief) and We gave him life (by knowledge and faith) and set for him a light (of belief) whereby he can walk among men ...) ﴿6:122﴾.

Allah said next,

﴿وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَسَمِيعٌ﴾

(And surely, Allah is All-Hearer), of your invocation, humility and requests for His help,


(All-Knower) meaning; about you, and you deserve victory over your rebellious, disbelieving enemies.

﴿إِذْ يُرِيكَهُمُ اللَّهُ فِى مَنَامِكَ قَلِيلاً وَلَوْ أَرَاكَهُمْ كَثِيراً لَّفَشِلْتُمْ وَلَتَنَـزَعْتُمْ فِى الاٌّمْرِ وَلَـكِنَّ اللَّهَ سَلَّمَ إِنَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ - وَإِذْ يُرِيكُمُوهُمْ إِذِ الْتَقَيْتُمْ فِى أَعْيُنِكُمْ قَلِيلاً وَيُقَلِّلُكُمْ فِى أَعْيُنِهِمْ لِيَقْضِىَ اللَّهُ أَمْراً كَانَ مَفْعُولاً وَإِلَى اللَّهِ تُرْجَعُ الأُمُورُ ﴾

(43. (And remember) when Allah showed them to you as few in your dream; if He had shown them to you as many, you would surely have been discouraged, and you would surely have disputed in making a decision. But Allah saved (you). Certainly, He is the All-Knower of that is in the breasts.) (44. And (remember) when you met, He showed them to you as few in your eyes and He made you appear as few in their eyes, so that Allah might accomplish a matter already ordained, and to Allah return all matters (for decision).)


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