|The Supplication of Nuh against His People and for whoever believed in Him|
Allah then says,
﴿وَقَدْ أَضَلُّواْ كَثِيراً﴾
(And indeed they have led many astray.) meaning, by the idols that they took for worship, they mislead a large number of people. For verily, the worship of those idols continued throughout many generations until our times today, among the Arabs, the non-Arabs and all the groups of the Children of Adam. Al-Khalil (Prophet Ibrahim) said in his supplication,
﴿وَاجْنُبْنِى وَبَنِىَّ أَن نَّعْبُدَ الاٌّصْنَامَرَبِّ إِنَّهُنَّ أَضْلَلْنَ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ النَّاسِ﴾
(And keep me and my sons away from worshipping idols."O my Lord! They have indeed led astray many among mankind...'') (14:35,36) Allah then says,
﴿وَلاَ تَزِدِ الظَّـلِمِينَ إِلاَّ ضَلاَلاً﴾
(Grant no increase to the wrongdoers save error.) This is a supplication from him (Nuh) against his people due to their rebellion, disbelief and obstinacy. This is just as Musa supplicated against Fir`awn and his chiefs in his statement,
﴿رَبَّنَا اطْمِسْ عَلَى أَمْوَلِهِمْ وَاشْدُدْ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ فَلاَ يُؤْمِنُواْ حَتَّى يَرَوُاْ الْعَذَابَ الاٌّلِيمَ﴾
(Our Lord ! Destroy their wealth, and harden their hearts, so that they will not believe until they see the painful torment.) (10:88) Verily, Allah responded to the supplication of both of these Prophets concerning their people and He drowned their nations due to their rejection of what he (that Prophet) had come with.
﴿مِّمَّا خَطِيئَـتِهِمْ أُغْرِقُواْ فَأُدْخِلُواْ نَاراً فَلَمْ يَجِدُواْ لَهُمْ مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ أَنصَاراً - وَقَالَ نُوحٌ رَّبِّ لاَ تَذَرْ عَلَى الاٌّرْضِ مِنَ الْكَـفِرِينَ دَيَّاراً - إِنَّكَ إِن تَذَرْهُمْ يُضِلُّواْ عِبَادَكَ وَلاَ يَلِدُواْ إِلاَّ فَاجِراً كَفَّاراً - رَّبِّ اغْفِرْ لِى وَلِوَلِدَىَّ وَلِمَن دَخَلَ بَيْتِىَ مُؤْمِناً وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَـتِ وَلاَ تَزِدِ الظَّـلِمِينَ إِلاَّ تَبَاراً ﴾
(25. Because of their sins they were drowned, then were made to enter the Fire. And they found none to help them instead of Allah.) (26. And Nuh said: "My Lord! Leave not one of the disbelievers on the earth Dayyar!'') (27. "If You leave them, they will mislead Your servants, and they will beget none but wicked disbelievers.'') (28. "My Lord! Forgive me, and my parents, and him who enters my home as a believer, and all the believing men and women. And to the wrongdoers grant You no increase but destruction!'') Allah says,
(Because of their sins) It also has been recited as; (خَطَايَاهُمْ) (their errors.)
(they were drowned,) meaning, for their numerous sins, rebellion, persistence in disbelief and opposition to their Messengers.
﴿أُغْرِقُواْ فَأُدْخِلُواْ نَاراً﴾
(they were drowned, then were made to enter the Fire.) meaning, they will be carried from the flood of the seas to the heat of the Fire.
﴿فَلَمْ يَجِدُواْ لَهُمْ مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ أَنصَاراً﴾
(And they found none to help them instead of Allah.) meaning, they will have no helper, assistant, or savior who can rescue them from the punishment of Allah. This is similar to Allah's statement,
﴿لاَ عَاصِمَ الْيَوْمَ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ إِلاَّ مَن رَّحِمَ﴾
(This day there is no savior from the decree of Allah except him on whom He has mercy.) (11:43)
﴿وَقَالَ نُوحٌ رَّبِّ لاَ تَذَرْ عَلَى الاٌّرْضِ مِنَ الْكَـفِرِينَ دَيَّاراً ﴾
(And Nuh said: "My Lord! Leave not one of the disbelievers on the earth Dayyar!'') meaning, do not leave a single one of them on the face of the earth, not even a lone individual. This is a method of speaking that gives emphasis to the negation. Ad-Dahhak said, "Dayyar means one.'' As-Suddi said, "Dayyar is the one who stays in the home.'' So Allah answered his supplication and He destroyed all of those on the face of the earth who were disbelievers. He (Allah) even destroyed Nuh's (biological) son from his own loins, who separated himself from his father (Nuh). He (Nuh's son) said,
﴿سَآوِى إِلَى جَبَلٍ يَعْصِمُنِى مِنَ الْمَآءِ قَالَ لاَ عَاصِمَ الْيَوْمَ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ إِلاَّ مَن رَّحِمَ وَحَالَ بَيْنَهُمَا الْمَوْجُ فَكَانَ مِنَ الْمُغْرَقِينَ﴾
(I will betake myself to some mountain, it will save me from the water. Nuh said: "This day there is no savior from the decree of Allah except him on whom He has mercy.'' And waves came in between them, so he (the son) was among the drowned.) (11:43) Allah saved the people of the ship who believed with Nuh, and they were those whom Allah commanded Nuh to carry with him. Allah said,
﴿إِنَّكَ إِن تَذَرْهُمْ يُضِلُّواْ عِبَادَكَ﴾
(If You leave them, they will mislead Your servants,) meaning, `if You leave a single one of them they will lead your servants astray.' This refers to those whom He will create after them.
﴿وَلاَ يَلِدُواْ إِلاَّ فَاجِراً كَفَّاراً﴾
(and they will beget none but wicked disbelievers.) meaning, wicked in their deeds and disbelieving in their hearts. He (Nuh) said this due to what he knew about them since he remained among them for nine hundred and fifty years. Then he said,
﴿رَّبِّ اغْفِرْ لِى وَلِوَلِدَىَّ وَلِمَن دَخَلَ بَيْتِىَ مُؤْمِناً﴾
(My Lord! Forgive me, and my parents, and him who enters my home as a believer,) Ad-Dahhak said, "This means, my Masjid.'' However, there is no harm in understanding the Ayah according to its apparent meaning, which would be that he (Nuh) supplicated for every person who entered his house who was a believer. Then he said,
(and all the believing men and women.) He supplicated for all of the believing men and women, and that includes those of them who were living and those of them who were dead. For this reason, it is recommended to supplicate like this, in following the example of Nuh, and that which has been reported in the narrations and well-known, legislated supplications. Then, he said,
﴿وَلاَ تَزِدِ الظَّـلِمِينَ إِلاَّ تَبَاراً﴾
(And to the wrongdoers, grant You no increase but destruction!) As-Suddi said, "But destruction.'' Mujahid said, "But loss.'' This means in both this life and in the Hereafter.This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Nuh. And all praise and thanks are due to Allah.