Allah states here that the worst moving creatures on the face of the earth are those who disbelieve, who do not embrace the faith, and break promises whenever they make a covenant, even when they vow to keep them,
﴿وَهُمْ لاَ يَتَّقُونَ﴾
(and they do not have Taqwa) meaning they do not fear Allah regarding any of the sins they commit.
﴿فَإِمَّا تَثْقَفَنَّهُمْ فِى الْحَرْبِ﴾
(So if you gain the mastery over them in war), if you defeat them and have victory over them in war,
﴿فَشَرِّدْ بِهِم مَّنْ خَلْفَهُمْ﴾
(then disperse those who are behind them,) by severely punishing ﴿the captured people﴾ according to Ibn `Abbas, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi, `Ata' Al-Khurasani and Ibn `Uyaynah. This Ayah commands punishing them harshly and inflicting casualties on them. This way, other enemies, Arabs and non-Arabs, will be afraid and take a lesson from their end,
(so that they may learn a lesson. )
As-Suddi commented, "They might be careful not to break treaties, so that they do not meet the same end.''
﴿وَإِمَّا تَخَافَنَّ مِن قَوْمٍ خِيَانَةً فَانبِذْ إِلَيْهِمْ عَلَى سَوَآءٍ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ الخَـئِنِينَ ﴾
(58. If you fear treachery from any people, throw back (their covenant) to them (so as to be) on equal terms. Certainly Allah likes not the treacherous.) make a heading, Allah says to His Prophet ,
﴿وَإِمَّا تَخَافَنَّ مِن قَوْمٍ﴾
(If you fear from any people), with whom you have a treaty of peace,
(treachery), and betrayal of peace treaties and agreements that you have conducted with them,
(then throw back (their covenant) to them), meaning their treaty of peace.
(on equal terms), informing them that you are severing the treaty. This way, you will be on equal terms, in that, you and they will be aware that a state of war exists between you and that the bilateral peace treaty is null and void,
﴿إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ الخَـئِنِينَ﴾
(Certainly Allah likes not the treacherous. ) This even includes treachery against the disbelievers. Imam Ahmad recorded that Salim bin `Amir said, "Mu`awiyah was leading an army in Roman lands, at a time the bilateral peace treaty was valid. He wanted to go closer to their forces so that when the treaty of peace ended, he could invade them. An old man riding on his animal said, `Allahu Akbar (Allah is the Great), Allahu Akbar! Be honest and stay away from betrayal.' The Messenger of Allah said,
«وَمَنْ كَانَ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ قَوْمٍ عَهْدٌ فَلَا يَحُلَّنَّ عُقْدَةً وَلَا يَشُدَّهَا حَتَّى يَنْقَضِي أَمَدُهَا، أَوْ يَنْبُذَ إِلَيْهِمْ عَلَى سَوَاء»
(Whoever has a treaty of peace with a people, then he should not untie any part of it or tie it harder until the treaty reaches its appointed term. Or, he should declare the treaty null and void so that they are both on equal terms.) When Mu`awiyah was informed of the Prophet's statement, he retreated. They found that man to be `Amr bin `Anbasah, may Allah be pleased with him.'' This Hadith was also collected by Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Hibban in his Sahih. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.''
﴿وَلاَ يَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ سَبَقُواْ إِنَّهُمْ لاَ يُعْجِزُونَ - وَأَعِدُّواْ لَهُمْ مَّا اسْتَطَعْتُم مِّن قُوَّةٍ وَمِن رِّبَاطِ الْخَيْلِ تُرْهِبُونَ بِهِ عَدْوَّ اللَّهِ وَعَدُوَّكُمْ وَءَاخَرِينَ مِن دُونِهِمْ لاَ تَعْلَمُونَهُمُ اللَّهُ يَعْلَمُهُمْ وَمَا تُنفِقُواْ مِن شَىْءٍ فِى سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ يُوَفَّ إِلَيْكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لاَ تُظْلَمُونَ ﴾
(59. And let not those who disbelieve think that they can outstrip (escape from the punishment). Verily, they will never be able to save themselves (from Allah's punishment).) (60. And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war to threaten the enemy of Allah and your enemy, and others besides them, whom you may not know but whom Allah does know. And whatever you shall spend in the cause of Allah shall be repaid unto you, and you shall not be treated unjustly.)