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Iblis was the First to use Qiyas (Analogical Comparison) Print E-mail

Ibn Jarir recorded that Al-Hasan commented on Shaytan's statement,

﴿خَلَقْتَنِى مِن نَّارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِن طِينٍ﴾

("You created me from fire, and him You created from clay.'') "Iblis used Qiyas ﴿analogy﴾, and he was the first one to do so.'' This statement has an authentic chain of narration. Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn Sirin said, "The first to use Qiyas was Iblis, and would the sun and moon be worshipped if it was not for Qiyas'' This statement also has an authentic chain of narration.

﴿قَالَ فَاهْبِطْ مِنْهَا فَمَا يَكُونُ لَكَ أَن تَتَكَبَّرَ فِيهَا فَاخْرُجْ إِنَّكَ مِنَ الصَّـغِرِينَ - قَالَ أَنظِرْنِى إِلَى يَوْمِ يُبْعَثُونَ - قَالَ إِنَّكَ مِنَ المُنظَرِينَ ﴾

(13. (Allah) said: "(O Iblis) get down from this (Paradise), it is not for you to be arrogant here. Get out, for you are of those humiliated and disgraced.'') (14. (Iblis) said: "Allow me respite till the Day they are raised up (the Day of Resurrection).'') (15. (Allah) said: "You are of those respited.'') Allah ordered Iblis;

﴿فَاهْبِطْ مِنْهَا﴾

(Get down from this) "because you defied My command and disobeyed Me. Get out, it is not for you to be arrogant here,'' in Paradise, according to the scholars of Tafsir. It could also refer to particular status which he held in the utmost highs. Allah said to Iblis,

﴿فَاخْرُجْ إِنَّكَ مِنَ الصَّـغِرِينَ﴾

(Get out, for you are of those humiliated and disgraced.) as just recompense for his ill intentions, by giving him the opposite of what he intended (arrogance). This is when the cursed one remembered and asked for respite until the Day of Judgment,

﴿قَالَ رَبِّ فَأَنظِرْنِى إِلَى يَوْمِ يُبْعَثُونَ - قَالَ فَإِنَّكَ مِنَ الْمُنظَرِينَ ﴾

(Then allow me respite till the Day they are raised up. (Allah) said: "Then you are of those respited.'') ﴿15: 36-37﴾ Allah gave Shaytan what he asked for out of His wisdom, being His decision and decree, that is never prevented or resisted. Surely, none can avert His decision, and He is swift in reckoning.

﴿قَالَ فَبِمَآ أَغْوَيْتَنِى لأَقْعُدَنَّ لَهُمْ صِرَطَكَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ - ثُمَّ لآتِيَنَّهُم مِّن بَيْنِ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ وَعَنْ أَيْمَـنِهِمْ وَعَن شَمَآئِلِهِمْ وَلاَ تَجِدُ أَكْثَرَهُمْ شَـكِرِينَ ﴾

(16. (Iblis) said: "Because You have `Aghwaytni', surely, I will sit in wait against them (human beings) on Your straight path. (17. "Then I will come to them from before them and behind them, from their right and from their left, and You will not find most of them to be thankful.'') Allah said that after He gave respite to Shaytan,

﴿إِلَى يَوْمِ يُبْعَثُونَ﴾

(till the Day they are raised up (resurrected)) and Iblis was sure that he got what he wanted, he went on in defiance and rebellion. He said,

﴿فَبِمَآ أَغْوَيْتَنِى لأَقْعُدَنَّ لَهُمْ صِرَطَكَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ﴾

("Because You have `Aghwaytani', surely, I will sit in wait against them (human beings) on Your straight path.'') meaning, as You have sent me astray. Ibn `Abbas said that `Aghwaytani' means, "Misguided me.'' Others said, "As You caused my ruin, I will sit in wait for Your servants whom You will create from the offspring of the one you expelled me for.'' He went on,

﴿صِرَطَكَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ﴾

(Your straight path), the path of truth and the way of safety. I (Iblis) will misguide them from this path so that they do not worship You Alone, because You sent me astray. Mujahid said that the `straight path', refers to the truth. Imam Ahmad recorded that Saburah bin Abi Al-Fakih said that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

«إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ قَعَدَ لِابْنِ آدَمَ بِطُرُقِهِ، فَقَعَدَ لَهُ بِطَرِيقِ الْإِسْلَامِ، فَقَالَ: أَتُسْلِمُ وَتَذَرُ دِينَكَ وَدِينَ آبَائِكَ؟ قَالَ: فَعَصَاهُ وَأَسْلَم»

قال:

«قَعَدَ لَهُ بِطَرِيقِ الْهِجْرَةِ فَقَالَ: أَتُهَاجِرُ وَتَدَعُ أَرْضَكَ وَسَمَاءَكَ؟ وَإِنَّمَا مَثَلُ الْمُهَاجِرِ كَالْفَرَسِ فِي الطِّوَلِ، فَعَصَاهُ وَهَاجَرَ، ثُمَّ قَعَدَ لَهُ بِطَرِيقِ الْجِهَادِ وَهُوَ جِهَادُ النَّفْسِ وَالْمَالِ، فَقَالَ: تُقَاتِلُ فَتُقْتَلُ فَتُنْكَحُ الْمَرْأَةُ وَيُقْسَمُ الْمَالُ، قاَلَ: فَعَصَاهُ وَجَاهَد»

وقال رسول اللهصلى الله عليه وسلّم:

«فَمَنْ فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ مِنْهُمْ فَمَاتَ، كَانَ حَقًّا عَلَى اللهِ أَنْ يُدْخِلَهُ الْجَنَّةَ، وَإِنْ قُتِلَ كَانَ حَقًّا عَلَى اللهِ أَنْ يُدْخِلَهُ الْجَنَّةَ، وَإِنْ غَرِقَ كَانَ حَقًّا عَلَى اللهِ أَنْ يُدْخِلَهُ الْجَنَّةَ أَوْ وَقَصَتْهُ دَابَّةٌ كَانَ حَقًّا عَلَى اللهِ أَنْ يُدْخِلَهُ الْجَنَّة»

(Shaytan sat in wait for the Son of Adam in all his paths. He sat in the path of Islam, saying, `Would you embrace Islam and abandon your religion and the religion of your forefathers' However, the Son of Adam disobeyed Shaytan and embraced Islam. So Shaytan sat in the path of Hijrah (migration in the cause of Allah), saying, `Would you migrate and leave your land and sky' But the parable of the Muhajir is that of a horse in his stamina So, he disobeyed Shaytan and migrated. So Shaytan sat in the path of Jihad, against one's self and with his wealth, saying, `If you fight, you will be killed, your wife will be married and your wealth divided.' So he disobeyed him and performed Jihad. Therefore, whoever among them (Children of Adam) does this and dies, it will be a promise from Allah that He admits him into Paradise. If he is killed, it will be a promise from Allah that He admits him into Paradise. If he drowns, it will be a promise from Allah that He admits him into Paradise. If the animal breaks his neck, it will be a promise from Allah that He admits him into Paradise.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on:

﴿ثُمَّ لآتِيَنَّهُم مِّن بَيْنِ أَيْدِيهِمْ﴾

(Then I will come to them from before them) Raising doubts in them concerning their Hereafter,

﴿وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ﴾

(and (from) behind them), making them more eager for this life,

﴿وَعَنْ أَيْمَـنِهِمْ﴾

(from their right), causing them confusion in the religion,

﴿وَعَن شَمَآئِلِهِمْ﴾

(and from their left) luring them to commit sins.'' This is meant to cover all paths of good and evil. Shaytan discourages the people from the path of good and lures them to the path of evil. Al-Hakam bin Abban said that `Ikrimah narrated from Ibn `Abbas concerning the Ayah,

﴿ثُمَّ لآتِيَنَّهُم مِّن بَيْنِ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ وَعَنْ أَيْمَـنِهِمْ وَعَن شَمَآئِلِهِمْ﴾

(Then I will come to them from before them and behind them, from their right and from their left,) "He did not say that he will come from above them, because the mercy descends from above.'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said,

﴿وَلاَ تَجِدُ أَكْثَرَهُمْ شَـكِرِينَ﴾

(and You will not find most of them to be thankful.) "means, those who single Him out ﴿in worship﴾.'' When Shaytan said this, it was a guess and an assumption on his part. Yet, the truth turned out to be the same, for Allah said,

﴿وَلَقَدْ صَدَّقَ عَلَيْهِمْ إِبْلِيسُ ظَنَّهُ فَاتَّبَعُوهُ إِلاَّ فَرِيقاً مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ - وَمَا كَانَ لَهُ عَلَيْهِمْ مِّن سُلْطَـنٍ إِلاَّ لِنَعْلَمَ مَن يُؤْمِنُ بِالاٌّخِرَةِ مِمَّنْ هُوَ مِنْهَا فِى شَكٍّ وَرَبُّكَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ حَفُيظٌ ﴾

(And indeed Iblis (Shaytan) did prove true his thought about them, and they followed him, all except a group of true believers. And he had no authority over them, except that We might test him who believes in the Hereafter, from him who is in doubt about it. And your Lord is Watchful over everything.) ﴿34:20-21﴾. tThis is why there is a Hadith that encourages seeking refuge with Allah from the lures of Shaytan from all directions. Imam Ahmad narrated that `Abdullah bin `Umar said, "The Messenger of Allah used to often recite this supplication in the morning and when the night falls,

«اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ الْعَافِيَةَ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ، اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ الْعَفْوَ وَالْعَافِيَةَ فِي دِينِي وَدُنْيَايَ وَأَهْلِي وَمَالِي، اللَّهُمَّ اسْتُرْ عَوْرَاتِي وَآمِنْ رَوْعَاتِي، اللَّهُمَّ احْفَظْنِي مِنْ بَيْنِ يَدَيَّ وَمِنْ خَلْفِي وَعَنْ يَمِينِي وَعَنْ شِمَالِي وَمِنْ فَوْقِي وَأَعُوذُ بِعَظَمتِكَ أَنْ أُغْتَالَ مِنْ تَحْتِي»

(O Allah! I ask You for well-being in this life and the Hereafter. O Allah! I ask You for pardon and well-being in my religion, life, family and wealth. O Allah! Cover my errors and reassure me in times of difficulty. O Allah! Protect me from before me, from behind me, from my right, from my left and from above me. I seek refuge with Your greatness from being killed from below me.)'' Waki` commented (about being killed from below), "This refers to earthquakes.'' Abu Dawud, An-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim collected this Hadith, and Al-Hakim said, "Its chain is Sahih. ''

﴿قَالَ اخْرُجْ مِنْهَا مَذْءُومًا مَّدْحُورًا لَّمَن تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ لأَمْلأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ ﴾

(18. (Allah) said (to Iblis): "Get out from this (Paradise), Madh'uman Madhura. Whoever of them (mankind) will follow you, then surely, I will fill Hell with you all.'') Allah emphasized His cursing, expelling, banishing and turning Shaytan away from the uppermost heights, saying; Ibn Jarir said, "As for Madh'um, it is disgraced.'' And he said, "Madhur is the distanced, that is, he is banished and expelled.'' `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, "We do not know of any who is Madh'uh and Madhmum except for one.'' Sufyan Ath-Thawri narrated from Abu Ishaq from At-Tamimi from Ibn `Abbas,

﴿اخْرُجْ مِنْهَا مَذْءُومًا مَّدْحُورًا﴾

(Get out from this (Paradise), Madh'uman Madhura) "despised.'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on,

﴿اخْرُجْ مِنْهَا مَذْءُومًا مَّدْحُورًا﴾

(Get out from this (Paradise), Madh'uman Madhura) ﴿7:18﴾ "Belittled and despised'', while As-Suddi commented, "Hateful and expelled.'' Qatadah commented, "Cursed and despised'', while Mujahid said, "Expelled and banished.'' Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that `Madh'um' means banished, while, `Madhura' means belittled. Allah said,

﴿لَّمَن تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ لأَمْلأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ﴾

(Whoever of them (mankind) will follow you, then surely, I will fill Hell with you all.) This is similar to

﴿قَالَ اذْهَبْ فَمَن تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ فَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ جَزَآؤُكُمْ جَزَاءً مَّوفُورًا - وَاسْتَفْزِزْ مَنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ مِنْهُمْ بِصَوْتِكَ وَأَجْلِبْ عَلَيْهِم بِخَيْلِكَ وَرَجِلِكَ وَشَارِكْهُمْ فِى الاٌّمْوَلِ وَالاٌّوْلَـدِ وَعِدْهُمْ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ الشَّيْطَـنُ إِلاَّ غُرُورًا - إِنَّ عِبَادِى لَيْسَ لَكَ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَـنٌ وَكَفَى بِرَبِّكَ وَكِيلاً ﴾

((Allah) said: "Go, and whosoever of them follows you, surely, Hell will be the recompense of you (all) an ample recompense. And gradually delude those whom you can among them with your voice, make assaults on them with your cavalry and your infantry, share with them wealth and children, and make promises to them.'' But Shaytan promises them nothing but deceit. "Verily, My servants -- you have no authority over them. And All-Sufficient is your Lord as a Guardian.'') ﴿17:63-65﴾

﴿وَيَــَادَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ فَكُلاَ مِنْ حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلاَ تَقْرَبَا هَـذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الظَّـلِمِينَ - فَوَسْوَسَ لَهُمَا الشَّيْطَـنُ لِيُبْدِيَ لَهُمَا مَا وُورِيَ عَنْهُمَا مِن سَوْءَتِهِمَا وَقَالَ مَا نَهَـكُمَا رَبُّكُمَا عَنْ هَـذِهِ الشَّجَرَةِ إِلاَ أَن تَكُونَا مَلَكَيْنِ أَوْ تَكُونَا مِنَ الْخَـلِدِينَ - وَقَاسَمَهُمَآ إِنِّي لَكُمَا لَمِنَ النَّـصِحِينَ ﴾

(19. "And O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in Paradise, and eat thereof as you both wish, but approach not this tree otherwise you both will be of the wrongdoers.) (20. Then Shaytan whispered suggestions to them both in order to uncover that which was hidden from them of their private parts (before); he said: "Your Lord did not forbid you this tree save you should become angels or become of the immortals.'') (21. And he Qasamahuma: "Verily, I am one of the sincere well-wishers for you both.'')

 
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