﴿ثُمَّ بَعَثْنَا مِن بَعْدِهِم﴾
(Then after them We sent), after the Messengers whom We mentioned, such as Nuh, Hud, Salih Lut and Shu`ayb (may Allah's peace and blessings be on them and the rest of Allah's Prophets), We sent,
(Musa with Our signs) proofs and clear evidences, to Fir`awn, who was ruler of Egypt during the time of Musa,
(and his chiefs) the people of Fir`awn,
(but they wrongfully rejected them), they denied and disbelieved in the signs, out of injustice and stubbornness on their part. Allah said about them in another Ayah,
﴿وَجَحَدُواْ بِهَا وَاسْتَيْقَنَتْهَآ أَنفُسُهُمْ ظُلْماً وَعُلُوّاً فَانْظُرْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَـقِبَةُ الْمُفْسِدِينَ ﴾
(And they belied them (those Ayat) wrongfully and arrogantly, though they were themselves convinced thereof. So see what was the end of the evildoers.)﴿27:14﴾ The Ayah says, `those who hindered from the path of Allah and belied in His Messengers, look how We punished them, We caused them to drown, all of them, while Musa and his people were watching.' Public drowning added disgrace to the punishment that Fir`awn and his people suffered, while adding comfort to the hearts of Allah's party, Musa and those people who believed in him.
﴿وَقَالَ مُوسَى يَفِرْعَوْنُ إِنَّى رَسُولٌ مِّن رَّبِّ الْعَـلَمِينَ - حَقِيقٌ عَلَى أَن لاَ أَقُولَ عَلَى اللَّهِ إِلاَّ الْحَقَّ قَدْ جِئْتُكُمْ بِبَيِّنَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ فَأَرْسِلْ مَعِىَ بَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ - قَالَ إِن كُنتَ جِئْتَ بِـَايَةٍ فَأْتِ بِهَآ إِن كُنتَ مِنَ الصَّـدِقِينَ ﴾
(104. And Musa said: "O Fir`awn! Verily, I am a Messenger from the Lord of all that exists.'') (105. "Proper it is for me that I say nothing concerning Allah but the truth. Indeed I have come unto you from your Lord with a clear proof. So let the Children of Israel depart along with me.'') (106. ﴿Fir`awn﴾ said: "If you have come with a sign, show it forth, if you are one of those who tell the truth.'') Allah mentions a debate that took place between Musa and Fir`awn, and Musa's refuting Fir`awn with the unequivocal proof and clear miracles, in the presence of Fir`awn and his people, the Copts of Egypt. Allah said,
﴿وَقَالَ مُوسَى يَفِرْعَوْنُ إِنَّى رَسُولٌ مِّن رَّبِّ الْعَـلَمِينَ ﴾
(And Musa said: "O Fir`awn! Verily, I am a Messenger from the Lord of all that exists''.) meaning Musa said, `the one Who sent me is the Creator, Lord and King of all things,'
﴿حَقِيقٌ عَلَى أَن لاَ أَقُولَ عَلَى اللَّهِ إِلاَّ الْحَقَّ﴾
("Proper it is for me that I say nothing concerning Allah but the truth. '') `It is incumbent and a duty for me to convey only the Truth from Him, because of what I know of His might and power.'
﴿قَدْ جِئْتُكُمْ بِبَيِّنَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ﴾
("Indeed I have come unto you from your Lord with a clear proof.'') `I brought unequivocal evidence that Allah gave me to prove that I am conveying the truth to you,'
﴿فَأَرْسِلْ مَعِىَ بَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ﴾
("So let the Children of Israel depart along with me.'') means, release them from your slavery and subjugation. Let them worship your Lord and their Lord. They are from the offspring of an honorable Prophet, Isra'il, who is Ya`qub son of Ishaq son of Ibrahim, the Khalil (intimate friend) of Allah.
﴿قَالَ إِن كُنتَ جِئْتَ بِـَايَةٍ فَأْتِ بِهَآ إِن كُنتَ مِنَ الصَّـدِقِينَ ﴾
(﴿Fir`awn﴾ said: "If you have come with a sign, show it forth, if you are one of those who tell the truth.'') Fir`awn said, `I will not believe in what you have said nor entertain your request'. Therefore, he said, `if you have proof, then produce it for us to see, so that we know if your claim is true.'
﴿فَأَلْقَى عَصَاهُ فَإِذَا هِىَ ثُعْبَانٌ مُّبِينٌ - وَنَزَعَ يَدَهُ فَإِذَا هِىَ بَيْضَآءُ لِلنَّـظِرِينَ ﴾
(107. Then ﴿Musa﴾ threw his staff and behold! it was a ﴿Thu`ban﴾ serpent, manifest!) (108. And he drew out his hand, and behold! it was white (with radiance) for the beholders.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah's statement,
(a ﴿Thu`ban﴾ serpent, manifest), refers to "The male snake.'' As-Suddi and Ad-Dahhak said similarly. A report from Ibn `Abbas said,
"(Then (Musa) threw his staff), and it turned into a huge snake that opened its mouth and rushed towards Fir`awn. When Fir`awn saw the snake rushing towards him, he jumped from his throne and cried to Musa for help, so that Musa would remove the snake from his way. Musa did that.'' As-Suddi commented,
﴿فَإِذَا هِىَ ثُعْبَانٌ مُّبِينٌ﴾
(and behold! It was a ﴿Thu`ban﴾ serpent, manifest!) "This ﴿Thu`ban﴾ refers to male snakes. The snake opened its mouth and headed towards Fir`awn to swallow him, placing its lower jaw on the ground and its upper jaw reaching the (top of the) wall of the palace. When Fir`awn saw the snake, he was frightened, so he jumped and wet himself and he never wet himself before this incident. He cried, `O Musa! Take it away and I will believe in you and release the Children of Israel to you.' So Musa, peace be on him, took it, and it became a staff again. ''
﴿وَنَزَعَ يَدَهُ فَإِذَا هِىَ بَيْضَآءُ لِلنَّـظِرِينَ ﴾
(And he drew out his hand, and behold! it was white (with radiance) for the beholders.) Musa took his hand out of his cloak after he inserted his hand in it and it was shining, not because of leprosy or sickness. Allah said in another Ayah,
﴿وَأَدْخِلْ يَدَكَ فِى جَيْبِكَ تَخْرُجْ بَيْضَآءَ مِنْ غَيْرِ سُوءٍ﴾
(And put your hand into your bosom, it will come forth white without hurt.) ﴿27:12﴾ Ibn `Abbas said, "without hurt', means, `not because of leprosy'. Musa inserted his hand again in his sleeve and it returned back to its normal color.'' Mujahid and several others said similarly.
﴿قَالَ الْمَلأ مِن قَوْمِ فِرْعَوْنَ إِنَّ هَـذَا لَسَـحِرٌ عَلِيمٌ - يُرِيدُ أَن يُخْرِجَكُم مِّنْ أَرْضِكُمْ فَمَاذَا تَأْمُرُونَ ﴾
(109. The chiefs of the people of Fir`awn said: "This is indeed a well-versed sorcerer.'') (110. "He wants to get you out of your land, so what do you advise'')